Causes and consequences of deforestation in Nepal

Causes and consequences of deforestation in Nepal

Causes of Deforestation in Nepal:

1. Mass Illiteracy: There exists mass illiteracy in Nepalese society. Due to illiteracy and ignorance, most of the illiterate people knowingly or unknowingly contribute to destroying forests. Thus, mass illiteracy and lack of public awareness are the main causes of deforestation.

2. Illegal Export: For short-term benefit, people are involved in the illegal export of forest materials either in domestic or foreign markets. Illegal practices of export of forest materials can also be specified as the reason for causes of deforestation.

3. Lack of Afforestation Programmes: There is a lack of scientific afforestation programs in areas where forests are destroyed. Lack of such afforestation programs is also one of the causes of deforestation.

4. Lack of Alternative Source of Energy: Observation shows that 85% of Nepalese households still depend on forest fuelwood. The alternative sources of energy in the form of hydro energy and solar energy are not sufficiently available in Nepal. This also results in deforestation.

5. Unscientific Collection of Herbs: Herbal plants are collected by semi-skilled people who while collecting these plants destroy other plants which is also responsible for deforestation.

6. Lack of Prize and Punishment: In Nepal, the system of prize and punishment is not exercised in saving Nepalese forests. Those people are not punished who illegally contribute to destroying the forest and likewise, those people are not rewarded who contribute to protecting the forest.

7. Open Grazing: Forest area remains open for grazing of domestic animals which also hampers the forests of Nepal.

8. Lack of Implementation of Afforestation Policy: Government has not been able to implement forest policy honestly and effectively to save unwanted deforestation in the country.

Consequences of Deforestation in Nepal:

1. Natural Calamities: If deforestation continues then landslides, floods, and other such calamities will take place claiming the lives of human beings.

2. Collapse of Forest-based Industries: Forest-based Industries obtain raw materials from forests. In case of deforestation, Forest-based industries will naturally collapse.

3. Decrease in Fertility and Natural Production: In case of deforestation due to flood, the top bed of soil gets washed away. Consequently, fertility of land declines and agricultural development suffers in Nepal.

4. Ecological Imbalance: In the case of deforestation the impact of global warming and an unhealthy environment is observed. A healthy atmosphere does not exist which damages the ecological balance.

5. Shortage of Ground Water: In case of deforestation the level of groundwater further declines which thereby decreases the storage of groundwater.

6. Loss of Natural Beauty and Tourism Development: If deforestation is not controlled then Nepal will lose the advantage of existing natural beauty. Moreover, in absence of forests vegetation, and wildlife, tourism development will also suffer.

7. Decrease in Government Revenue: Government obtains revenue through the sale of forest materials either in domestic or in foreign markets. In the case of deforestation, the source of government revenue will naturally decline.

8. Decrease in Export: Deforestation causes to decline export of forest materials in the days to come.

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