Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB

Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB

Class-12-economics-new-syllabus-complete-notes-neb-hseb

Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB

CHAPTER - 1
Basic concepts of Economics and Allocation of Resources


Introduction
Scarcity and choice
Opportunity Cost
Production Possibility Curve (PPC)/ Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)
- The Shape of Production Possibility Curve
- The shift in Production Possibility Curve
Allocation of Resource
A. The Problem of Allocation of Resources
B. How to achieve Fuller Utilization or Full Utilization of Resources
C. How to achieve Growth of Resources?
Division of Labour
- Concept of Division of Labour with advantages and disadvantages
- Types of Division of Labour
Specialization
- Advantages of Specialization
- Disadvantages of Specialization
Economic System
- Types of Economy


CHAPTER - 2
Market and Revenue Curves


Concept of Market with features
Perfect competition
- Features or Characteristics of Perfect Competition Market
Imperfect Competition with Features
A. Monopoly Market
- Features or Characteristics of Monopoly Market
- Reasons for Monopoly
- Types of Monopoly
B. Monopolistic Competition
- Features or Characteristics of Monopolistic Competition Market
C. Oligopoly
- Features or Characteristics of Oligopoly Market
Total Revenue (TR), Average Revenue (AR), and Marginal Revenue (MR)
- Nature of TR, AR, and MR under Perfect Competition
- Nature of TR, AR, and MR under Monopoly Market
Numerical Portion


CHAPTER - 3
Cost Curves


Concept of Cost and its types
Derivation of Short-run Total Cost Curves
Difference between Variable cost and Fixed Cost
Derivation of Short-run Average Cost (AC) Curves
Derivation of Marginal Cost (MC) Curve
Relationship Between AC and MC
Numerical Portion


CHAPTER - 4
Theory of Price and Output Determination


Concept of Firm and Industry
Concept of Equilibrium
- Equilibrium of an Industry under Perfect competition
- Equilibrium of a firm under perfect competition
- Price and Output Determination Under Perfect Competition
- Equilibrium of a firm under Monopoly
- Price and Output Determination under Monopoly
Comparison between Perfect Competition and Monopoly
- Similarities between Perfect Competition and Monopoly
- Differences between Perfect Competition and Monopoly
Numerical Portion


CHAPTER - 5
Factor Pricing


Introduction to Factor Pricing
Rent
- Meaning of Rent and Types of Rent
- Contract Rent Vs Economic Rent
- Ricardian/ Classical Theory of Rent
Wages
- Concept of Wages and Types of Wages
- Capital Market Vs Money Market
- Monetary Policy
Current Situation/ Status of Commercial Banks and Development Banks in Nepal


CHAPTER - 7
Government Finance


Concept of Government Finance
- Scope of Government Finance
- Role/ Importance of Government Finance
Concept of Government Revenue
- Sources of Government Revenue
Concept of Government Expenditure
- Importance of Government Expenditure
- Classification of Government Expenditure
Concept of Taxes
- Direct Taxes
- Indirect Taxes
- Progressive Taxe
- Regressive Taxe
- Proportional Tax
- Digressive Tax
Government Borrowing
- Sources of Government Borrowing
Government Budget
- Types of Budget
- Process of Budget Formulation
- Deficit Financing


CHAPTER - 8
International Trade


Concept and Importance of International Trade
Balance of Trade 
Balance of Payment
Exchange Rate
Free Trade and Protectionism
The Comparative Cost Theory of International Trade
Bases of International Trade
Measures to reduce the trade deficit in Nepal


CHAPTER - 9
Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Human Resource


Concept of Poverty
- Causes of Poverty
- Features/ Characteristics of Poverty
- Current Situation of Poverty in Nepal
- Measures of Poverty Reduction
Concept of Inequality
- Causes of Inequality
- Measures to Mitigate Inequality
Concept of Unemployment
- Types of Unemployment
- Causes of Unemployment
- Methods to generate Employment Opportunities
Concept of Human Resources
- Role or Importance of Human Resources
- Indicators of Human Development
- Human Development Index (HDI)
- Current situation of Population in Nepal


CHAPTER - 10
Nepalese Foreign Trade and Foreign Employment


Concept of Nepalese Foreign Trade
Growth of Nepalese Foreign Trade
Composition of Nepalese Foreign Trade
The direction of Foreign Trade in Nepal
Problems of Nepalese Foreign Trade

World Trade Organization (WTO) and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
Foreign Employment and Remittance
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Employment


CHAPTER - 11
Development Planning in Nepal


Meaning and Definition of Development Planning
- Development Planning in Nepal
- Past Development Plans of Nepal in brief
- General Evaluation of Immediate Past Plan of Nepal
- Current 15th Periodic plan of Nepal (2019/20 to 2023/24)
- Process of Plan Formulation in Nepal


CHAPTER - 12
Sustainable Development Goals and Nepal


Concept of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations (UN)
No Poverty and Nepal
Zero Starvation and Nepal
Decent Work, Economics Growth and Nepal
Quality Education and Nepal


CHAPTER - 13
Introduction to statistics


Review of Basic Subject of Statistics
Origin and Definition of Statistics
Functions of Statistics
Need and Importance of Statistics
Limitations of Statistics


CHAPTER - 14
Data Collection


Concept of Data Collection
Pre-requisites of data collection
Types of Data
Methods of Collecting Primary data
- Choice of Method
- Problems of Collecting Primary Data
Sources of Secondary Data
- Published sources
- Unpublished sources
- Precautions in the usage of Secondary data
- Problems in Collecting Secondary Data
Techniques of Data Collection
Methods of Sampling


CHAPTER - 15
Measures of Dispersion


Concept of 'Measures of Dispersion'
- Objectives of Measuring Dispersion
- Characteristics for an Ideal Measure of Dispersion
- Absolute and Relative measure of dispersion
- Various methods of Measures of Dispersion


CHAPTER - 16
Index Numbers


Concept of Index Numbers
- Features of Index Numbers
- Importance of Index Numbers
- Types of Index Numbers
Usable Terminologies in Constructing Index Numbers
Methods of Constructing Index Numbers
- Simple/ Unweighted Index Number
- Weighted Index Number
Limitations of Index Numbers

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