Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB


Class 12 Economics New Syllabus Complete Notes NEB | HSEB

Basic concepts of Economics and Allocation of Resources

Scarcity and choice

Opportunity Cost
Production Possibility Curve (PPC)/ Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)
- The Shape of Production Possibility Curve
- The shift in Production Possibility Curve
Allocation of Resource
A. The Problem of Allocation of Resources
B. How to achieve Fuller Utilization or Full Utilization of Resources
C. How to achieve Growth of Resources?
Division of Labour
- Concept of Division of Labour with advantages and disadvantages
- Types of Division of Labour
- Advantages of Specialization
- Disadvantages of Specialization

Economic System
- Types of Economy

Market and Revenue Curves

Concept of Market with features
Perfect competition
- Features or Characteristics of Perfect Competition Market
Imperfect Competition with Features
A. Monopoly Market
- Features or Characteristics of Monopoly Market
B. Monopolistic Competition
- Features or Characteristics of Monopolistic Competition Market
- Oligopoly

Total Revenue (TR), Average Revenue (AR), and Marginal Revenue (MR)
- Nature of TR, AR, and MR under Perfect Competition
- Nature of TR, AR, and MR under Monopoly Market
Numerical Portion

Cost Curves

Concept of Cost and its types
Derivation of Short-run Total Cost Curves
Difference between Variable cost and Fixed Cost
Derivation of Short-run Average Cost (AC) Curves
Balance of Payment
Exchange Rate
Free Trade and Protectionism
The Comparative Cost Theory of International Trade
Bases of International Trade
Measures to reduce the trade deficit in Nepal

Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Human Resource

Concept of Poverty
- Causes of Poverty
- Features/ Characteristics of Poverty
- Current Situation of Poverty in Nepal
- Measures of Poverty Reduction
Concept of Inequality
- Causes of Inequality
- Measures to Mitigate Inequality

Concept of Unemployment
- Types of Unemployment

- Causes of Unemployment
- Methods to generate Employment Opportunities
Concept of Human Resources
- Role or Importance of Human Resources

- Indicators of Human Development
- Human Development Index (HDI)
- Current situation of the Population in Nepal

Nepalese Foreign Trade and Foreign Employment

Concept of Nepalese Foreign Trade
Growth of Nepalese Foreign Trade
Composition of Nepalese Foreign Trade
The direction of Foreign Trade in Nepal
Problems of Nepalese Foreign Trade

World Trade Organization (WTO) and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
Foreign Employment and Remittance
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Employment

Development Planning in Nepal

Meaning and Definition of Development Planning
- Development Planning in Nepal

- Past Development Plans of Nepal in brief
- General Evaluation of Immediate Past Plan of Nepal

- Current 15th Periodic plan of Nepal (2019/20 to 2023/24)
- Process of Plan Formulation in Nepal

Sustainable Development Goals and Nepal

Concept of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations (UN)
No Poverty and Nepal
Zero Starvation and Nepal
Decent Work, Economics Growth and Nepal
Quality Education and Nepal

Introduction to statistics

Origin and Definition of Statistics
Functions of Statistics
Need and Importance of Statistics
Limitations of Statistics

Data Collection

Concept of Data Collection
Pre-requisites of data collection
Types of Data
Methods of Collecting Primary data
- Choice of Method
- Problems of Collecting Primary Data
Sources of Secondary Data
- Published sources
- Unpublished sources
- Precautions in the usage of Secondary data
- Problems in Collecting Secondary Data
Techniques of Data Collection
Methods of Sampling

Measures of Dispersion

Concept of 'Measures of Dispersion'
- Objectives of Measuring Dispersion
- Characteristics for an Ideal Measure of Dispersion
- Absolute and Relative measure of dispersion
- Various methods of Measures of Dispersion

Index Numbers

Concept of Index Numbers
- Features of Index Numbers
- Importance of Index Numbers
- Types of Index Numbers
Usable Terminologies in Constructing Index Numbers
Methods of Constructing Index Numbers
- Simple/ Unweighted Index Number
- Weighted Index Number
Limitations of Index Numbers

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