Climate Change in Nepal

climate-change-in-nepal

Meaning of Climate Change:

Climate change is a change in global or regional climate patterns over time. It means a change in Earth’s temperature, humidity, air pressure, wind clouds, and rainfall patterns over time.

Climate is the average atmospheric conditions over a longer period of time. The climate is the usual condition of the temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other Meteorological elements in the area of the surface of the Earth for a long period of time. The typical kind of weather that is expected in a region over a longer period is known as climate.

Climate change is a long-term phenomenon. When the expected patterns of the average weather condition of a region or the whole Earth are significantly changing over the long term then it is known as climate change. In fact, the climate changes are abnormal variations to the climate and the effects of these variations are found on different parts of the Earth.

Climate change is caused by both natural and artificial conditions in the environment. the natural causes of climate change are variations in the orbit of the Earth, variation in oceanic circulation, variation in the heat and light that is reflected from the Earth's surface, and the variation in solar radiation. The artificial causes of climate change are deforestation, air pollution, and poor agricultural practices such as bush fire, wrong application of inorganic chemical fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, industrialization, urbanization, poor transport system, etc.

Impact of Climate Change in Nepal:

1. Impact on Agriculture: Climate change has a greater impact on the agriculture sector in countries like Nepal where agriculture depends on natural factors. It increases the cost of agricultural products. The opportunity cost of crop production rises which might encourage farmers to switch their jobs. Furthermore, the decrease in production could increase the price of agricultural products.

2. Impact on Tourism: The effects of climate change make some tourist destinations less attractive and others more attractive. Climate change prevents international and local tourists from visiting tourist attractions.

3. Impact on Infrastructure: Climate change causes various natural disasters affecting people’s daily lives and causing tremendous physical damage. There are very few possibilities of government compensation for the destruction of physical property. So, the economic cost of infrastructure in the country is very high due to climate change.

4. Impact on Hydropower: Hydropower is already a complex system and climate change increases the complexity of the hydropower system. Fluctuations in rainfall affect the amount of water and the production of installed capacity.

5. Migration: 
Climate change creates mass migration around the world. Immigrants are leaving areas of extreme natural disasters. This has become a serious issue in some countries.

Mitigation and adaptation measures of climate change in Nepal:

In order to tackle the problem of climate change, we need to take several steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there should be the practice of Energy Efficiency, greater use of renewable energy, electrification of industrial processes, use of efficient means of transport like electric public transport, bicycles and shared vehicles, carbon dioxide tax, etc.

Similarly, the most secure facility location infrastructure, Restoration of natural landscape and reforestation, flexible and diverse cultivation for natural catastrophes, research and development on possible catastrophic events, preventive and precautionary measures, etc should be emphasized to tackle the effects of climate change.

There should be less use of non-renewable natural resources and the practice of RRR (Reuse, Reduce, Recycle) should also be made a priority. Moreover, the perpetual sources of natural resources should be used to reduce pollution. The pollution absorption devices should be compulsorily implemented in large factories and old vehicles.

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