Natural Resource Management in Nepal


Concept of Natural Resource Management

Natural Resource Management refers to the management of natural resources with a special focus on how management affects the quality of life for present and future generations. It integrates land management, water management, biodiversity conservation, and industrial sustainability in the future.

According to National Planning Commission (NPC) ”Natural resource management means to meet the present and future demand and need without depleting the existing stock of resources.”

Natural resource management is in line with the concept of sustainable development. This shows the need for natural resource management for sustainable development which implies both the use and preservation of natural resources.

Problems of Natural Resource Management in Nepal/ Natural Resource Degradation in Nepal:

1. High Population Growth Rate: It is one of the major problems of natural resource management. When the population increases so does the demand for most of the goods and services. In order to meet these demands of a growing population, there will be pressure on natural resources.

2. Inadequate Public Awareness: Most of the rural people of Nepal are uneducated and unaware of the scientific use of available natural resources. As a result, they are using available resources haphazardly. This creates problems in natural resource management.

3. Deforestation: It is another problem of natural resource management. Due to the high population growth rate and migration, maximum use of firewood for cooking purposes, lack of awareness, forest resources are destroying. This creates the problem of natural resource management.

4. Unscientific Urbanization: Due to unscientific urbanization and lack of disposal facilities, pollution is increasing in urban areas. This complicates the problem of natural resource management.

5. Establishment of Industries: There is no provision for control of pollution caused by the establishment of industries due to the lack of clear-cut policy. Consequently, air pollution is increasing in Nepal.

6. Increasing Number of Vehicles: The number of vehicles is increasing day by day in urban areas of Nepal. As a result, air pollution is high in urban areas.

Consequences of Natural Resource Mismanagement in Nepal:

1. Soil Degradation: Environmental negligence leads to soil degradation which reduces the productivity of the agricultural sector. Due to this, the total production of main crops is decreasing day by day.

2. Water Pollution and Water Scarcity: Water pollution harms human health and lowers labor productivity. There is depletion of underground water which causes water scarcity for various water-related purposes.

3. Air Pollution: The use of energy in various forms is causing air pollution which is creating various breathing-related diseases.

4. Loss of Biodiversity: Environmental degradation reduces biodiversity. It reduces the adaptability of the ecosystem and the loss of genetic resources. It results in the build-up of waste. Therefore, if unchecked, it leads to the ultimate destruction of the environment and its capacity to sustain life.

5. Atmospheric Changes: The overproduction of toxic gases depletes the ozone layer leading to different diseases related to air. It also increases global warming. The forest, agriculture, and whole ecosystem are affected by atmospheric changes.

6. Natural Calamities: Rapid deforestation leads to uneven rainfall resulting in various types of natural calamities.

7. Adverse Effect in Tourism Industry: Environmental Pollution adversely affects the tourism industry in the country.

Measures or Suggestions for Natural Resources Management:

1. Afforestation: Afforestation helps to prevent various natural calamities such as landslides, drought, soil erosion, etc. For this, various afforestation programs should be launched.

2. Scientific Use of Natural Resources: We need to use resources rationally for sustainable development.

3. Enactment of Legal Provision: Rules and Regulations must be transparent and should be implemented effectively.

4. Environmental Education: Almost all people depend upon natural resources in different ways. So they should be familiarized with the importance of natural resources via environmental education.

5. Establishment of Reserved Areas: To protect various flora and fauna, various reserved areas should be established. This is helpful for ecological balance.

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