Sources of influences on curriculum


Sources of influences on curriculum:

Various sources lay influence on curriculum. The growth and development of children, society and schooling, cultural aspects, learning theories, and nature of knowledge have major influences on curriculum which are explained in detail as follows:

A. Growth and development of children:

Since the curriculum provides guidance on how to design curriculum, impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes, teach using materials and methods, provide learning experiences and evaluate learning, it is important to determine the curriculum according to the growth and development of the child. Many psychologists and educators seem to agree that the conditions of growth and development make a difference in the aims, themes, and methods of learning. Therefore, an important factor influencing the development of the curriculum is the growth and development of children.

The impact of children's intelligence and development on the curriculum can be explained by the interrelationship between growth, development, and learning. In fact, the purpose of the curriculum is to support children's learning and development, so the impact of growth and development on the curriculum can be confirmed. Growth refers to the modest changes that occur in children, especially the changes in the shape and texture of the internal and external parts of the body. Although environmental influences are important to such growth, various psychologists believe that genetics may also have an effect. Maturity plays an important role in determining how much and how little a child grows, that is, the two are interrelated as growth progresses with maturity.

Learning, on the other hand, is a behavior change. Such change is caused by practice and experience. Maturity is required for practice and experience. Such maturity is related to the growth and development process. Since maturity is required in learning, the relative impact of learning, growth, and development can be assessed.

Development is concerned with both quantitative and qualitative change Development refers to the physical, mental, emotional, and other aspects Maturity and experience also play a role in development. The growth process and development are also interrelated. Similarly, since learning also supports the development process, learning and development are closely related

It is clear from the above-mentioned interrelationship of growth, development, and learning that when making decisions in the curriculum on learning objectives, themes, activities, etc., decisions should be made following the level or stage of growth and development by studying growth and development. Adaptable to the age, maturity, and development of the child. The curriculum should be designed accordingly. Objectives can be achieved only if they are determined in a way that is conducive to the growth and development of the child while determining the subject matter, teaching methods and activities, and methods of evaluation in the curriculum. As both physical and mental growth and development have a direct impact on learning, the impact of growth and development on the curriculum is significant.

There are different stages of human growth and development. From pregnancy to neonatal infancy and infancy, there is a period of rapid growth from infancy to pre-school, post-school, adolescence, and adolescence. Even then, human life is divided into adult, middle and old age based on the characteristics of growth and apprenticeship. Since they are classified based on certain and some common features of each of these stages of human growth and development, it is necessary to plan the curriculum development and teaching-learning according to the characteristics of the developmental stage and make arrangements accordingly. Therefore, different objectives, themes, activities, and evaluation processes are determined in the curriculum to suit different age groups.

Psychologist Jean Piaget (J. Piaget) has mentioned that since there are stages and characteristics of children's cognitive development, it is necessary to conduct objectives, themes, and learning activities in a way that is appropriate according to that stage. On this basis, it is clear that the curriculum needs to be tailored to the developmental stage of the children. According to Piaget, the stages of a child's cognitive development and its main features are as follows:

  • A period of one and a half or two years from birth is called a sensory-motor condition. In this condition, the child experiences only based on contact with the object by the senses.
  • The period of one and a half or two years to 7 or 8 years is a pre-operational stage. It develops the ability to understand and mimic the world through language.
  • The period of 7 or 8 years to 12/13 years is the concrete operational stage. It prepares children for solid object-based activities and learning.
  • The condition after 12/13 years is a formal operational stage. During this period, abstract thinking, diversification, logic, and conjecture develop.

In this way, the curriculum should be developed in such a way as to look at the cognitive phase given by Piaget. This also confirms the need for the curriculum to be tailored to the growth and development of children.

As the curriculum thus determines the learning objectives, themes, activities, and evaluation process to assist in the children's learning, it is necessary to develop a corresponding curriculum by studying the growth and development of the child. Therefore, an important aspect that affects the curriculum is the growth and development of the child, that is, the developmental stage of the child. So the curriculum should be adapted to the developmental stage.

B. Society and schooling:

The task of the curriculum is to develop the ability of any person to suit his social and cultural environment. Therefore, for the development of the curriculum, the society and culture should be analyzed and the curriculum should be developed and developed accordingly. Therefore, society and culture are presented as an important source of influence on the curriculum. Similarly, as the structure and format of the curriculum will be determined based on the school system, the school system has also been taken as an important resource to influence the curriculum.

a. Society

The notion of "education for society" has developed ever since society began to realize the importance of education. Education is decided only after the analysis of the social situation in each country and the process of change in the education system continues along with the change in the social situation. 'Whatever the role of education in society, it is difficult to determine the purpose of education without studying and analyzing the structure of the society', Taba has clarified. The role of education here includes the transfer of culture, the socialization of the individual, and the restructuring of the society.

It is a complex task to meet the expectations set by the changing understanding of education. For this, education should be developed following social needs by continuously evaluating the objectives and demands of the society and the factors influencing it. Based on such evaluation, it is necessary to decide what kind of knowledge is more useful, what kind of skill is better to be made proficient and what value is socially relevant. Since education is seen as a vehicle for change in society, it is imperative that the curriculum be designed to meet the needs of both society and the individual. Therefore, there should be a detailed analysis of the society before the curriculum is created. Here are some important aspects to consider when analyzing society:

1. Activities of persons in a society
Only after analyzing the activities that people are more engaged in in the society, what kind of activities are they doing, it becomes clear that education should pay attention to such things in order to move such activities forward. This type of pre-curricular analysis is very helpful in formulating the objectives of the curriculum.

2. Main problems of the work.

There can be many problems in society. In that too, there are special problems in society. Society cannot prosper unless such problems are solved Therefore, only by identifying and analyzing such problems a solution can be developed.

3. Aspiration

What a person expects in society, what are his or her needs is a strong basis for curriculum development. The analysis of such needs is very necessary for curriculum development. Otherwise, the concept of education cannot be meaningful for human needs. Therefore, the curriculum should be designed to fulfill the aspirations of the people in the society.

4. Skills
It is important to have a detailed study on which skills of a person are the main ones in society and how to emphasize which skills can lead to the economic development of the society because the business going on in the society and the skills to be developed in it is the main economic basis. This can benefit both the individual and society. This type of analysis is very helpful in deciding what the curriculum should be aimed at making the existing skills productive or what kind of learning experiences should be taken into consideration.

5. Social Values ​​& Customs
Another important aspect of social analysis is the prevailing social values ​​and customs. Since education is also needed to preserve and promote the values ​​and beliefs that introduce society to the world, the curriculum needs to be given more importance in such matters. The culture (values ​​and beliefs) of any country is the jewel of that country. Therefore, the main responsibility of protecting it lies with the people.

As long as the people have not been educated, they cannot be protected.

In the modern age, much-needed democratic values ​​such as human freedom, their right to life, equality of opportunity in the use of available resources are also interpreted on the basis of social management and cultural structure. Therefore, even though such democratic ideals have a permanent value, they can be given different freedoms and rights according to the structure of the society. What kind of rights and freedoms are given to a person in a society depends on the values ​​of that society. As long as the curriculum remains silent about such values, there will be indirect or direct conflict between society and the individual. Therefore, the curriculum should be developed in such a way that social values ​​and beliefs are assimilated by analyzing the society as the basis of curriculum development.

6. Disadvantaged groups:
In any society, there are some backward groups for which it is necessary to provide them an opportunity to move forward like others. Some because of geography, some because of inaccessibility, some because of race, some because of religion and some because of physical infirmity, these people remain in backward class in society. Education aims at the upliftment of such groups as a major part of society. The curriculum needs to take special initiatives to provide these groups with the same opportunities as others. For this, it is necessary to have a comprehensive analysis of all these aspects. Based on such analysis, the self-esteem of the individual or group should be encouraged and inclusiveness should be encouraged.

7. Social & family life
Analysis of social life can also be taken as a basis for curriculum development. To gain knowledge about social life is to analyze what kind of natural resources there are in a society, how the population has changed, what is the state of migration and where the social change has gone. Only on the basis of such things, education can play the role of utilizing natural resources to the highest degree, adopting measures to reduce migration, population control and contribute to the development of society.

8. Interaction & Conflict
A person has two kinds of life, one personal and the other social. There is always an interaction between these two kinds of life. Personal life pressures have a great impact on social life and social life pressures on personal life. Unless such pressures are studied and the education system is used for mitigation measures, there is no reason to believe that the curriculum we have developed will be useful. For example, a person's life can be frustrating and unsuccessful if the problems of family life and thus the economic problems of the youth and personal freedom, democratic ideals and the conduct of the individual do not follow the right path.

In the same way, there is a danger of the disappearance of the culture if the conflicts of values ​​and beliefs arising due to the diversity of things like technology, institutions, behaviors and traditions are not treated in time. The significance of education can be seen only by evaluating such social aspects and formulating an education plan for its proper management. That is why the analysis of society is taken as the basis of curriculum development.

9. Economic aspect

Gossips on economic freedom and equal opportunity have become political values. Behavior according to democratic values ​​is also political. In the matters of economic convenience, one nation cannot succeed without the assistance of another. There have also been analyzes on the restoration of economic facilities, the relationship between financial institutions, the operation of the private sector, and the government itself. As economic imbalances persist unless the findings based on such analyzes are applied in real life, it is important to include these aspects in the education system as they have a direct impact on the lives of individuals. That is why social analysis is considered as the major basis of curriculum development

10. Science & technology
When analyzing society for curriculum development, one should not forget the impact of science and technology, that plays a leading role in bringing development and change in society through technology. It is said that technology is the main element of culture and the catalyst and medium of social and cultural change. The technology is the focus and the core of the culture, the initiator and the agency of social and cultural change.

In today's world where society has regularized its progress on the basis of the development of technology, it is imperative to educate the younger generation about the role of education in technology development and its impact. Looking at the progress made by the world in the field of mass communication, it is found that new technology has been developed in recent years. If education is planned without considering such things, the pace of development of the country cannot move forward. It can be felt that the change in social values ​​and beliefs is due to the development in science and technology and its impact on living standards. In this way, technology has helped to change human beings in the world.

Thus, on the one hand, technology and on the other hand, the values ​​and beliefs arising from the method of thought have controlled the human brain. The development of this technology can be both useful and harmful for society because only those who have a good knowledge of it are using it. We can lift our civilization through technology. Therefore, the changes in science and technology, which are considered very important to include this important aspect of technology in the curriculum, have pointed out the need for great improvement in the social base of education. Developments in the fields of biology, anthropology, sociology, and social psychology are important in understanding and educating people.

b. Cultural aspect:

We need to focus on the environment in which we grow up or the environment in which we live, what the environment is like, what the environment expects from us, what kind of knowledge is required to live in harmony with it, what are the main problems. By embracing the culture that human beings have been living in different societies for centuries, their life is not possible by abandoning that culture. Therefore, social values ​​and beliefs are considered the norm of any society, which can familiarize itself with those standards. The only person who can be successful is the one who can behave accordingly. The values, beliefs and norms of any society are the culture of that society. As long as the education system does not focus on introducing such cultures to the children, helping them to take measures for protection and promotion and behaving accordingly, neither the education system will succeed nor the person produced from it will succeed. Therefore, the culture of any country is taken as the main source of curriculum development. Only after analyzing the culture, it becomes clear what the purpose of education is and what kind of textbook is to be used to fulfill those purposes.

Culture encompasses the material achievements, standards, beliefs, and emotions of the human environment, such as inclinations towards certain standards, manners, ethics, self-esteem, and methods of self-control.

Therefore, culturally determined standardized behaviors are being passed down socially from one generation to the next, through which education is the main medium. This is not to say that education in one country should be the same for all. As there are different castes, costumes, living conditions, manners, dialects within the country, different types of culture exist in different parts of the same country. That is why people with different personalities are found in different parts of the country. It is the responsibility of the curriculum developers to recommend textbooks in a balanced way to the national culture and even to such sub-cultures.

The following aspects should be considered in the analysis of culture:

1. Culture & personality
Education is for man and contributing to the development of society through man is also the work of education. People have different personalities for cultural reasons. According to Taba, there are three types of people living in the same society:

✓ Like all other people: People are interdependent because they are like other people.
✓Like some other people: People are committed to a race or social culture.
✓Different from other people (Like no other people): People's needs, thoughts, ideas are found in different forms from one to another.

Therefore, the curriculum should be able to develop concerning the culture of those three types of personalities.

Every society has its own goal in terms of socializing the individual, based on which personality is built. Such goals are determined by cultural values ​​such as social behavior, characteristics, and abilities

Only based on cultural standards, one can decide what is right for society and what is wrong. The curriculum can play a big role in strengthening personality development based on culture. Such a personality can recognize itself in the world. Unless we become acquainted with the culture of others, we will not be able to maintain our relationship with them. Therefore, it is not considered good to limit education to one's own culture.

Parsons explains the role of school in personality development, explaining the sequence of cultural development that a person should have:

The school first frees the child from the emotional bond with the family, universalizes the pattern of socialization, internalizes the level of social values ​​and beliefs, and raises the level one level above that of the family by selecting, distributing, and training human resources, it helps them to develop the role of adult.

The School 
(a) Emancipates the child from the primary emotional attachment to the family, 
(b) Universalizes the socialization pattern 
(c) Helps the child to internalize a level of social values ​​and norms step higher than those can learn in the family, and 
(d) Helps to select, allocate, and train the human resources relative to the adult role system.

For these and other types of personality development, the curriculum takes the help of culture.

2. Cultural change
Education is considered to be the carrier of change. Transferring the existing culture in any society is one of the tasks of education while keeping up with the development of culture is another important task. Similarly, along with the development of education in the society, the task of education is also to remove the stereotypes that are disappearing and to awaken the new values ​​and beliefs that are being established and to help create new values ​​and beliefs. In today's society, the culture of one place affects the culture of another, but it is difficult to move to another place. Acculturation is the process of being educated in the culture of a place and being able to get along with other cultures. In this way, the education system should be able to impart knowledge of diverse cultures that can make a person's life meaningful in the future.

Due to the influence of technological and scientific development, industrialization, and urbanization, new cultures have emerged replacing the old ones. If one does not know about such changing values ​​and beliefs, one has to face a lot of problems to adjust. Developments, especially in the field of communication, are also changing the world culture. In any country, they have their own original culture, but from the point of view of development, it is not possible to move forward only by embracing such original culture. The needs of yesterday and the needs of today are different. A curriculum built solely based on yesterday's needs cannot meet today's needs because of the culture change. The curriculum should be able to realize the cultural changes that will take place tomorrow and develop the concept of Schools for tomorrow and choose learning experiences accordingly.

Due to cultural change, people's roles in society change. The person who had the role before is not the same now. In the same way, there have been changes in the way people do things and their methods. In such a situation, socialization is possible only if we can move forward by incorporating the changes that have taken place in the family, society, school, industry and business. Therefore, the curriculum should be recommended only after a comprehensive analysis of the culture in the society.

3. Character and values

Any person has two types of character - one social and the other personal. These characters play a very important role in education. Education is associated with cultural norms and the person should be careful to remove the imbalances that appear in the character of the person due to social change or values. Character is the sum of human behavior, passions, and values. It is the responsibility of education to develop these aspects. The character should be considered as an integral part of personality development. Regarding social and personal character, Taba says that all members of the same culture exhibit the same characteristics ‌ that are the social character. But even within the same culture, the different characteristics of the person appear to be within the personal character. (Social character are those characteristics which are shared by the members of a culture and individual character is defined by characteristics in which individuals who belong to the same culture differ from each other.)

The development of social character is created by the needs of the culture. What culture seeks to establish in a society determines the character of a person in a society. If we look at the history of the world, new social needs have emerged along with the era of social development.

Education cannot be socially useful and life-sustaining if such features are not included in the curriculum. That is why character and values ​​are considered the basic basis of curriculum development. In this context, it is appropriate to mention Erich's statement. For the community to function well, its members must develop the character to act as members in the community. (So that society may function well, its members must acquire the kind of character which makes them want to act in the way they have to act as members of the society.) Proper education must be provided to develop the individual as a member of society.

Cultural values ​​also play a role in the development of social character Instability in cultural values ​​and intermingling can also destabilize a person's character. Such instability is linked to the motivation for achievement, the goal of success, the traditional ideals of human values, democracy, and social ethics. Since only a person who studies these social characteristics well can maintain his balance in society, character and value play a big role in curriculum development. Therefore, the curriculum should be formulated accordingly by analyzing the culture based on the following tasks that education should do.

✓ One should be able to internalize values ​​and feelings. (Internalization of values ​​and feelings)
✓ Orientation of life-based on values,
✓ Responsibility and respect for others should be developed as moral values ​​and character values. (implanting moral standards and characteristic values ​​like responsibility and respect for individuals)
✓ Developing democratic values ​​as the quality of the individual, self-determination, broad opportunities and freedom of expression and freedom of expression.

c. Schooling

Schools are the main source of curriculum implementation. The school arranges classrooms for curriculum implementation. In each classroom, according to the intent of the curriculum, the teacher is made responsible for the basic changes in the children. The success of the curriculum also depends on the teacher's qualifications and capacity. Teachers who do not have the ability to teach their assigned subject cannot stay in school or educational institutions and they run away from there (Tum over). In the place left by one teacher, other teachers can also come from other places through transfer. The level at which one teacher teaches may differ from another. Thus, the constant change of the teacher causes problems in the implementation of the curriculum. There is also the problem of training new teachers.

Necessary facilities must also be available in the school to achieve the learning achievements specified by the curriculum. For example, for the qualities and skills that need to be developed in students through group work, it is very important to have an environment in which students are taught in groups within the school. There may be many more such facilities. If the curriculum is not developed based on the facilities available within the school system, the curriculum needs to be improved or changed.

The curriculum covers both theoretical and practical topics. In addition to the practical knowledge, experimental activities have to be done. Similarly, for the purpose of theoretical knowledge, other tools (other than marker, duster) are also necessary for school. Even if the pieces of equipment required for reading are not provided in this way, it becomes difficult to achieve the goals of the curriculum. Similarly, curricula that show only the need for equipment without considering the condition of the school have to be changed. Thus, even if there is a lack of financial and other resources available in the school, the curriculum has to take a different form. For example, when designing the English curriculum for class 6 in Nepal, 2051, the objective was to make listening activities from cassette tapes.

Thus, due to the capacity of the teacher, the means and resources available in the school, it seems necessary to change the prescribed curriculum. The curriculum cannot be implemented effectively unless there is a balance between the thinking and implementation of the curriculum.

In short, there are two reasons related to the school: Teacher turnover and the need to change the curriculum based on the availability of materials and equipment. The curriculum needs to be modified accordingly considering the new teachers' abilities and skills. Otherwise, the course cannot be successfully implemented.

Similarly, the curriculum should be based on the teaching and learning materials and equipment available in the school. Otherwise, curriculum implementation may fail due to a lack of materials and equipment. Thus, the materials and facilities available in the school are also an important factor influencing the curriculum change.

C. Learning theories:

The tips needed to build a good curriculum can be gleaned from learning principles. It is easy to determine the curriculum and its methods only after knowing the nature of humans and the learning process. If we take a closer look at the history of education, we find that education has always been related to learning. Education should not be narrowed down to a particular subject, it should be broadened with the form of learning for which the new knowledge and skills that have appeared in the world and the principles of learning based on them are considered to be the backbone.

Relevance of learning principles in curriculum planning (Relevance of Learning Theories-to the Curriculum Planning)

Knowledge of the learner and the learning process is very useful in curriculum decisions. A curriculum is a learning plan. There are three main types of decision-making when planning a course, looking at the learning goals set out in the curriculum and the ways to achieve them. Learning principles form an important basis for those decisions.

1. Selection and arrangement of content
To make the curriculum relevant, it is necessary to pay special attention to the choice and organization of the curriculum. It is an important decision as to which textbook to keep and in what order to teach it. For this, it is necessary to be aware of learner and learning theories. For the selection and organization of the curriculum to be included in the curriculum, it is necessary to determine what and how the child learns at what stage and age.

2. Plans for optimum conditions for learning
Learner improvement and the Learning process is not possible without making learning plans. To know what to teach children of a certain age, it is necessary to know what kind of studies have been done on their development. The timing of a particular subject depends on the study of the characteristics of children of different age groups. In the same way, what kind of experience to impart to children, what kind of experiences are worth learning, how to teach such experiences to children also depends on the state of learning. 

Knowing how children develop their abilities and what level of intellectual abilities children have at what age can help in developing curricula tailored to the needs and abilities of the children. In the same way, the knowledge of transfer in learning helps in making decisions regarding the effectiveness of learning. Knowledge of the transfer of learning is also needed to know how to use the experiences gained in school in various aspects of life. All the knowledge related to the development of a person helps in creating the objective of the curriculum. Thus learning theory provides an important basis for appropriate learning planning.

3. Selection of the learning experience:
The kind of learning environment to be created under the chosen subject, in which the students can gain experience from their interactions ‌ comes within the learning experience. The learning experience to be chosen for the practice course should also be organized according to which learning theories have the most impact. Otherwise, there will be difficulties in achieving the objectives of the curriculum. The theories-based curriculum plays a big role in determining which learning experience is appropriate. The learning experience can only be selected from in-depth study and research of students' backgrounds. Since the learners work with age, ability, cost, and need in mind, the principle of learning is placed at the core of curriculum development. The doctrine of learning has opened up many avenues for us to define child behavior. Based on these child behaviors, it helps to select learning experiences in the curriculum.

The principles and theories of education always emphasize students and their entry behavior. Students and their admissions behavior should be informed based on learning principles. The usefulness of an educational program is proven when it helps in meeting the needs of the students. Thus, education psychology has a big role to play in curriculum development as education has to be planned according to the condition of the students (age, characteristics, variety, need, etc.). Current curriculum structures and current teaching methods reflect the historical aspects of learning theories, from faculty psychology to field theory. In practice, stimulus-response learning and conditioning learning are still given equal importance in changing and controlling values ​​and behaviors. But since no single theory can meet today's needs, different learning theories have been used in combination with the learning situation.

D. Nature of knowledge:

One of the basic foundations of curriculum development can be taken in the form of basic knowledge. What kind of knowledge is needed in society and what kind of knowledge has been acquired so far is considered important for the development of the curriculum. Intellectual subjects such as image, meaning, and knowledge and their proper organization play a great role in one's education. It is important to pay attention to the knowledge aspect while planning the curriculum or creating the curriculum. In particular, what kind of knowledge is required for the fulfillment of the objectives set by the curriculum plan? And how can such organized knowledge be easily applied by students? curriculum developers should not forget that.

The curriculum that is constructed without taking into account how the flow of knowledge has progressed in the society is neither considered to have developed the intellect of the students nor such knowledge proves to be useful for society. In today's society, the flow of knowledge has increased in such a way that the teacher cannot go to the classroom and complete the learning achievement determined by the curriculum with just one book. With the development of communication and electronic technology in the world today, the amount of knowledge has increased so much that every year or every two / two years the curriculum needs to be reconsidered. Herbert Spencer once asked the question, "Which knowledge is most useful?" This question is just as relevant today. Therefore, curriculum developers have to think about the nature of the knowledge flowing in the society and how the students can develop themselves in a way that suits the society. Courses designed with the knowledge of society in mind are always successful. But another important aspect to consider is the nature of knowledge and its application. It is difficult to change what the curriculum seeks only by becoming acquainted with the nature of knowledge because unless the means and resources required for the proper use of that knowledge can be secured, that knowledge becomes empty theoretical.

To discuss how the form of knowledge plays a role as an important basis for curriculum development, the three main aspects related to it need to be considered. The three aspects that need to be considered in this regard are what kind of knowledge is more useful in the present age of knowledge expansion, what aspects are emphasized within the chosen field of knowledge, and what abilities are to be acquired in the learner.

1. In the context of constant change in the field and form of knowledge due to expansion and globalization of knowledge, what kind of knowledge should be included in the curriculum, what knowledge is currently more useful, how to provide dynamics in the knowledge included in the curriculum? Curriculum development is also guided by how to balance resources, tools, knowledge, and needs.

2. Deciding on which aspects to focus on and how to organize the aspects of knowledge is an important basis for the development of the curriculum under the knowledge chosen because of the expansion of knowledge and the impact of globalization. There are basically two aspects to learning about which aspects of learning to incorporate into certain knowledge or how to organize them. First, how to organize which of the facts, assumptions, theories, generalizations, methods, and processes included in the structure of a knowledge or subject area or how to organize all these aspects of the knowledge structure. Second, to develop the skills and behaviors of the learners in the field of knowledge or subject matter.

3. Another important basis for determining the nature of knowledge to be included in the curriculum is the philosophy taken by the education system, society, and the curriculum maker. What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? And what knowledge is good or useful? Educational and social philosophy have an influence in determining that. Based on which the form of knowledge to be included in the curriculum and the method of acquiring knowledge is determined. Based on that, it becomes clear how educational philosophy affects the development of all the elements of the curriculum, including the choice of objectives and subjects, determination of teaching and learning activities, and evaluation. In fact, determining the form of knowledge in the curriculum serves as an important basis for the curriculum. Philosophical beliefs and beliefs have served as an important basis for determining such a form of knowledge.

Various aspects of knowledge

The following introduction to aspects of knowledge such as facts, assumptions, theories, generalizations, methods, and procedures makes it clear how these aspects play a role as the basis of curriculum development.

• Facts: Expertise in facts alone does not create new knowledge. But since the basic basis of the development of human thought is a fact, the teaching of fact is considered necessary.

• Concepts: Concepts are the abstract things that organize objects, events, and processes. Assumptions are developed based on the identification of a problem or a new invention. Therefore, to develop ideas, it is necessary to search for accurate, permanent, or long-lasting, applicable ideas in the teaching process. The curriculum should be designed to encourage such research.

• Principles: The teaching of principles is also placed on a level under the nature of knowledge. It is considered necessary to be in a state of curriculum development to know which principles need to be taught to advance knowledge according to the time and circumstances.

• Generalizations: Predictions based on the general relationship of any resulting fall under generalization. Definitions and classifications are determined based on generalizations. Therefore, generalization is also called a complete idea. There is a lot of focus on creating a curriculum on what kind of knowledge can be imparted to students and how generalizations can be developed in them.

• Methods: The ways or methods of any action are considered to be the product of knowledge. The facts can be used as the basis for the way things are done. Once the basic knowledge is acquired based on facts, it is easy to determine the method of its use. Appropriate methods should also be prepared in the course of curriculum development.

• Processes:
Any knowledge has its own processes to be completed. Such processes are determined in a layered manner. It is difficult to enter the second level without completing the first level, that is, knowledge of the next level is impossible without completing the process of the previous level. Therefore, it is very important to keep in mind the processes while determining the knowledge in curriculum development.

On the other hand, the abilities and behaviors that students develop in any subject area or knowledge provide an important basis for Were development. In particular, the three parts of Bloom's classification of educational objectives (cognitive, emotional, and psychoactive) and the various subdivisions under those three parts are important for the development of the curriculum.

It is these elements of knowledge in the aggregate that help the course move forward in an integrated manner. These elements of knowledge also play a decisive role in deciding which subject to teach in which class. Knowledge also has its own classification. Micro knowledge that has appeared in today's world is also considered essential for subject specialization.

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