Critical Thinking Class 12 English notes Critical Thinking Class 12 English notes
Hamro Library
Hamro Library

Critical Thinking Class 12 English notes


Unit 1: Critical Thinking

Before you read:

What are critical thinking skills?

Ans. The critical skills are analysis, interpretation, inference, explanation, self, regulation, open-mindedness, problem, solving and decision making.

Also, Browse the following:

How do critical thinkers solve the problems? Guess the steps they follow while tackling a problem.

Ans. Critical thinkers solve the problems by following these steps:

  • recognizing a problem or situation
  • comprehending development by using concepts and generalizations
  • testing hypothesis and gather data
  • revising hypothesis and testing to revise a new hypothesis
  • forming a conclusion.

Working with words

A. Find the words from the text that match with the following meanings.

Shuffling : walking by dragging one's feet along or without lifting them fully from the ground
Doodling : drawing pictures or patterns while thinking about something else
Palaque : a piece of flat metal with writing on it
Percept : a general rule intended to regulate behavior or thought
Sneak : move or go in a furtive or stealthy way

B. Consult your teacher and define the following thinking skills.
a. convergent thinking
Convergent thinking is a type of thinking that focuses on coming up with the single,well-established answer to a problem. It emphasizes speed, accuracy, and logic and focuses on recognizing the familiar reapplying techniques and accumulating stored information.

b. divergent thinking
Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. It typically occurs in a spontaneous, free. flowing "non-linear' manner such that many ideas are generated in emergent cognitive fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and particular set of logical steps to arrive one solution, which is some cases is a correct solution. Activities, meditation, brainstorming, subject mapping, bubble mapping art work, free writing etc. can be some methods that useful in this context.

c. critical thinking
Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of activity and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing and/or evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter division; clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth and fairness.

d. creative thinking
Creativity is the ability to generate a thought or an idea that is completely new, appealing and useful. Creative thinking is a skill that enables you to come up with original and unconventional ideas. Creative thinking expresses itself in a multitude of ways. A graphic artist creates a brilliant logo.

Creativity is the ability to generate thought or an idea that is completely new appealing and useful. Creative thinking is a skill that enables you to come up with original and unconventional ideas.


Answer the following questions.

Who was Jack? How did he make children laugh?

Ans. Jack was one of the students of the classroom, who was joking around with some kids who weren't in our homeroom. He was the kind of kid other kids like.

Why are "Sharks" important to Reid?

Ans. Sharks are important to Reid because they eat dead things in the ocean.

What does Mr. Browne think about the most important thing?

Ans. Mr. Browne thinks that the most important thing is 'God'. God means the creatorof the whole creation of each and every thing of the world or universe.

What is that has not been noticed by the student?

Ans. The plaque next to the door of this school hasn't been noticed by the student.

How did Jack make fun of the English class?

Ans. Jack started telling about all the fun stuff they are going to be doing this year.

What were the students going to do at the end of the month?

Ans. They were going to have a new perception of graduation from this school.

What particular act of students surprised a girl student?

Ans. Personal percept to write on a postcard and mail it to the girl from wherever they go on their summer vacation was the particular act of students that surprised the girl student. Absurd behaviour of the boy's gesture toward the girls and his body language gives her trouble.

Critical thinking

Have you made your own precept after you read this lesson? What is it? Share it with your friends.

Ans. Precept is a guiding principle or rule that is used to control, influence or regulate conduct. After I read this lesson, I have made my precept. The precept on my part is:

When given choice between right or being kind, I choose kindness.

Example : That I am correct but I don't make a big deal about that since I know that some other might not be correct.

According to Josh Lanyon, "If there was one life skill everyone on the planet needed, it was the ability to think with critical objectivity." Justify this statement with your logic.

Ans. When you live with a potentially life-threatening condition, you might have the thought of dying. You accept it, you push on. But the thing that scars you is the picture of dying slowly and painfully, the loss of independence and identity.

To make life easy and successful, everyone needs to think critically. Analyze everything and avoid the negation. Think about the betterment of others and progress to get achieving in life. Do effort to meet your goal. Critical thinking is the ability to think reasonably. Reason is the process. The entire point of critical thinking is to pursue absolute truth. Reason is the methodology, applying information gathered from or generate idea by observation, experience, reflection, reasoning etc. are the objectives of critical thinking. Absolute truth is always beyond our reach though we have to perceive and accept it. Objective truth is always within reach. So, in critical thinking a person is reason tries to establish objective truth.

We shouldn't feel angry or annoyed when mean, crazy or stupid people violate our own right path.


Write an email to your friend explaining an interesting class you had. 


From : ......
To : ....

Hey ! I hope you are fine, I am also well. How is your study going on ? I am having online classes these days and I am a bit free as well. So I am writing to you. All our school classes are being digitalized on the next level. Our classes are either conducted on zoom or on Microsoft teems. Depending upon which platform is easier to conduct a class, we get schedules a day prior and we have to prepare ourselves accordingly.

We are suppose to create environment that is calm and noise free so that when we have to converse it is easier for the listener to communicate. We can search various answers in search engine and prove our hypotheses also. We construct our thinking by analyzing various perceptions. This time bonds us to do everything by ourselves. Any way we have to survive in the pandemic period.

I like the absurd, perception on this virtual class. Any-way we have to accept everything, think critically because we have to face every trouble of life. If you have anything interesting about online classes write me soon.

Yours ..
Name: ....


Question tag

A. Study the following examples.

  1. You are tired, aren't you?
  2. He left Kathmandu, didn't he?
  3. Your father never touched alcoholic drinks, did he?

B. Rewrite the following sentences adding appropriate question tag.

  1. Gill does not know Ann, does he ? I'm very patient, aren't I ?
  2. They'd never met me before, had they ?
  3. Listen carefully, will you ?
  4. Let's have a break, shall we?
  5. Let us invite them, will you ?
  6. Hari used to live in France as a boy, didn't he ?
  7. You'd better not take a hard drink, had you ?
  8. Sheep eat grass, don't they ?
  9. Mr. Pande can speak nine languages, can't he ?
  10. She's finished her classes, hasn't she ?
  11. She barely managed to reach the goal, did she ?
  12. Don't let him swim in that pond, will you ?
  13. There are lots of people here, aren't there ?

C. Read the following situations. What do you say in these situations? Use question tags.

a. The sky is full of cloud. You can see lightning and hear thunder. It's going to rain soon, isn't it ?
b. You want to pay the taxi fare but you are short by 100 rupees, Shyam, don't you ?
c. You have met a stranger at a party and you want to have a chat with him/her. Will you like to have a chat with me, wouldn't you?
e.You and your friend listened to a comedian on the stage and felt spellbound by his/her performance. He gave an excellent performance, didn't he ?
f. You think your friend's father has arrived from the US but you are not sure. Your father has arrived from US, hasn't he ?
g.You think Susan will join the new job tomorrow but you are not sure Susan will join the new job tomorrow, won't he ?
h. Your friend's hair looks too short.You have got your friend's hair cut, don't you ?
i. You want to go for a picnic with your friends in class. Let's go for a picnic, shall we ?
j. You want permission from your father to go for a walk. Let me go for a walk, will you ?


C. How would you express disappointment in the following situations?

a. You missed the birthday party of your close friend because you were unwell.

  • I love to attend your party but I was un well.
  • I regret to be unable to join the party my dear friend.

b. You had to go to school on time, but as it happened, you found the tyre of your bicycle flat.

  • What a bummer !
  • I'm sorry. My bicycle deceived me at a crucial time.

c. You have arranged to go for a picnic with your friends. But it is pouring with rain.

  • Every job has its ups and down.
  • What a bad luck on our part !

d. You went to the cinema with your friend to watch a newly-released film, but as it happened, there was 'Housefull' sign outside.

  • What's up ! that's nothing for me.

e. You could not secure A grade in class 11 in English.

  • If I had worked hard before exam, I would have secured Grade A in class 11 English.

Project work

Invite some students of Grade XI and ask them these three questions. Write a paragraph based on their answers and share it with your friends.

a. What are you CURIOUS about?

I am curious about human health & disease.

b. What are you CONCERNED about?

I am concerned about treating people in free of cost.

c. What do you want to CREATE in the world?

Free treatment & cure to everyone.

Peace & harmony, throughout the world. All people may live happily and enjoy freedom in life no one would give trouble & harassment to them.

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