Unit 2: Family | Class 12 English Notes and Exercise Unit 2: Family | Class 12 English Notes and Exercise
Hamro Library
Hamro Library

Unit 2: Family | Class 12 English Notes and Exercise


Unit 2: Family | Class 12 English Exercise

Before you read

a. Do you live in a small family or a big family? Which type of family do you like? Why?

Ans. I live in a nuclear family. Which is a small type. I like nuclear families because it is easy to survive and get every comfort and satisfaction. But we have to miss the guidance and security problems in society.


Also, Browse the following:

b.  How important is family to you? How important is it in your culture?

Ans. Family is the basic foundation of social norms and values. It is important because handing over the conventional culture, beliefs and various valuable functions provides psychological security.


  • Working with words
A. Find the words from the text and solve the puzzle. Clues are given below



1. the custom of having more than one wife at the same time

5. to find an acceptable way of dealing with opposing ideas, needs etc.

6. the process in which towns, streets, etc. are built where there was once countryside 

7. the process by which somebody learns to behave in an acceptable way in their society



1 ruled or controlled by men.

2. the act of taking over a position

3. done in a way without caring if people are shocked

4. single-parent


B. Find the meanings of the following family-related words and use them in your own sentences.

nuclear family, monogamy, sibling-in-law, milk kinship, matrilineal, nepotism, mater 

  • Nuclear family: A couple and their dependent grandchildren, regarded as a basic unit. The family consisting of the father, mother and dependent family is called the nuclear family.
  • Monogamy: Practice of marrying one person at a time. Monogamy is a relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime. Sibling-in-law: Siblings-in-law have legal relationships among family members.
  • Milk kinship: A form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members. The relationship formed through breastfeeding is called milk-kinship.
  • Matrilineal: Matrilineal of or based on kinship with mother or the female line. In a society founded on matrilineal kinship, the mother has the principal role.
  • Nepotism: Favoritism- the practice among those with power or influence of favouring relatives or friends. The minister promised to end corruption and nepotism.
  • Maternity: She is not a woman with an interest in maternity.


C. The following words are from the above text. Each word has two parts. polygamy, unmarried, nontraditional, dissolution, inequitable

 poly, un, non, dis and in are prefixes. They make new words when they are added to the beginning of other root words. 


Make at least five words using the prefixes given. Consult a dictionary to learn how they change the meaning of root words.

pre -, semi -, sub -, mis -, mono -, un -, in -, inter -.


Pre + liminary = Preliminary

pre + school = Preschool

semi – partly = semicircle, semi-conscious

sub – lower in rank = subsoil, submarine

mis – wrong, false = misfeel, misbehaviour

mono – one = monopoly, monolingual

un – not = un + able, unable, unfinished

in – in, on, or, not = inject, insane

inter – together = intercourse, interact

  • Comprehension

A. The headings of the first five paragraphs of the above text are given below. Write paragraph numbers next to them.

    a.    Patriarchal family

Ans. Historically, in most cultures, the family was patriarchal, or male-dominated. Perhaps the most striking example of the male-dominated family is the description of the family given in the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), where the male heads of the clans were allowed to have several wives as well as concubines. As a general rule, women had a rather low status. In Roman times the family was still patriarchal, but polygamy was not practised, and in general, the status of women was somewhat improved over that suggested in the Hebrew Bible, although they still were not allowed to manage their own affairs. The Roman family was an extended one. The family as it existed in medieval Europe was male-dominated and extended.


    b.    Functions of the family   

Ans. At its best, the family performs various valuable functions for its members. Perhaps most important of all, it provides for emotional and psychological security, particularly through the warmth, love, and companionship that living together generates between spouses and in turn between them and their children. The family also provides a valuable social and political function by institutionalizing procreation and by providing guidelines for the regulation of sexual conduct. The family additionally provides such other socially beneficial functions as the rearing and socialization of children, along with such humanitarian activities as caring for its members when they are sick or disabled. On the economic side, the family provides food, shelter, clothing, and physical security for its members, some of whom may be too young or too old to provide for the basic necessities of life themselves. Finally, on the social side, the family may serve to promote order and stability within society as a whole.


c.    Modern model of family

Ans. The modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution is different from the earlier model. For instance, patriarchal rule began to give way to greater equality between the sexes. Similarly, family roles once considered exclusively male or female broke down. Caring for the home and children, once the exclusive duty of the female, is often a shared activity, as, increasingly, is the earning of wages and the pursuit of public life, once the exclusive domain of the male. The structure of the family is also changing in that some couples choose not to marry legally and instead elect to have their children out of wedlock; many of these informal relationships tend to be of short duration, and this as well as the rise in levels of divorce  -has led to a rapid increase in the number of one-parent households.


d.    Effects of industrialization on family structure

Ans. In the West, industrialization and the accompanying urbanization spawned -and continue to spawn -many changes in family structure by causing a sharp change in life and occupational styles. Many people, particularly unmarried youths, left farms and went to urban centres to become industrial workers. This process led to the dissolution of many extended families.


e.    Defining family

Ans. At Its most basic, a family consists of an adult and his or her offspring Most commonly, it consists of two married adults, usually a man and a woman (almost always from different lineages and not related by blood) along with their offspring, usually living in a private and separate dwelling. This type of unit, more specifically known as a nuclear family, is believed to be the oldest of the various types of families in existence Sometimes the family includes not only the parents and their unmarried children living at home but also children that have married, their spouses, and their offspring, and possibly elderly dependents as well; such an arrangement is called an extended family.


Answer the following questions.

  1. What type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family?

Ans. The family includes not only the parents and their unmarried children living at home with a married uncle, aunt, nephew, cousin, grandparents and other dependents in an extended family which is thought to be the oldest form of the family.

  1. How does a family provide security to its members?

Ans. Family provides emotional and psychological security by providing warmth, love, companionship, institutionalizing, procreation and providing guidelines for the regulation of sexual conduct. 

  1. What were the features of a medieval European family?

Ans. The family as it existed in medieval Europe was male-dominated and extended. Where the male heads of the clans were allowed to have several wives as well as concubines.

  1. What caused the dissolution of extended families in the West?

Ans. Industrial development, urbanization and occupational style caused the dissolution of extended families in the West.

  1. What change occurred in gender roles in the modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution?

Ans. Patriarchal rule began to give way to greater equality between males and females. Caring for the home and children, once exclusively of the female, is often a shared activity. Increasing the earning of wages, they have pursued public life structure of the family is changing, informal relationships tend to be of short duration and rises the level of divorce and increases the one-parent households.

  1. What is family law?

Ans. It is the legal relationship among family members as well as the relationship among families and societies at large. Family law includes the terms and parameters of marriage. It represents a delicate balance between the interests of society and the protection of individual rights.

  1. How is modern marriage defined?

Ans. Modern marriage is the legal transfer of dependency that of the bride, from father to groom. Groom assumed control over all of his wife’s affairs. Women lost any legal identity through marriage, which is transferred to the groom. Dowry is given as compensation for her dependency. In general, modern marriage is best described as a voluntary union between a man and a woman.

  1. What do special family courts try to do?

Ans. Special family courts try to balance private and public interests since realistically it is the couple itself that can decide whether its marriage is viable. Most modern systems recognize a mutual request for divorce, though many require an attempt to reconcile before granting a divorce. Special family courts attempt to deal more fairly with sensitive issues such as custody of children.

  1. What does the legislation on child labour and child abuse declare?

Ans. Legislation on child labour and child abuse also asserts society’s responsibility for a child’s best interest. Compulsory education is an example of the law superseding parental authority ..

  1. What is common among most legal systems regarding property?

Ans. Most legal systems have some means of dealing with the division of property left by a deceased family member. There are also laws that recognize family claims in the event that property is left. Surviving spouses or offspring may contest what appears to be unreasonable or inequitable provisions.


  • Critical thinking
  1. What changes have started to occur in Nepali families in recent days? What impacts will they bring to society? Discuss

Ans. Nowadays Nepali family system has changed into a nuclear family or split family. Due to this elderly people feel isolated from their families. The love, care and security disorders make them live alone. The most common geriatric psychiatric disorder is depression. The role of family systems in depression among the elderly has not been studied extensively. It has been suggested that urbanization promotes the nucleation of family systems and decreases care and support for the elderly. Negative effects of the nuclear family include the isolation and emotional dependency of the husband and wife and parent-child relationship which produces tensions and may lead to marriage breakdown. The nuclear family so far as excludes other family members who are integrated into the extended family tends to neglect the needy. Such as aged, poor, handicapped and tends to aspire in a competitive manner towards material well-being and status itself. The acquisition of status symbols which characterizes the nuclear family leads to wastage of resources and artificial values with a strong emphasis on consciousness. In Nepalese society, we can see only elderly people in rural areas. they don’t have been utilizing resources and they have depression. No one cares for them. Urban areas become overcrowded with internal forms of family dispatches which creates problems for the dependent people. Faith, warmth, and belief in the family have been lost with the money-minded selfish youths. It may create a great problem in the near future for Nepalese families.


  1. We see many elderly people in elderly homes these days in Nepal. Some of them are abandoned while others live there willingly. Do you think Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture? Give reasons.

Ans. Nepal’s senior citizen act 2063 defines elderly people as”People Who Are 60 Years and above.” The population of senior citizens has been increasing rapidly which is one of the positive developments in the life expectancy rate. However, we see many elderly people living in elderly homes. This is either because they were abandoned by their children or by their own will.


The elderly people (Senior citizens) gave a huge generation gap between them and their children. This makes the conversation feel/comfortable. The urban elderly seem to be more privileged compared to the rural elderly and but at the same time, their condition is really worse in urban areas as well. The biggest issue for elderly people in urban areas is abandonment by their children. There are many cases where elderly people are abandoned by their children during their old age. There are severe cases like leaving them in the street temple etc.


As far as I am concerned I think that Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture. In the past, everybody used to respect, love and care for elderly people but nowadays people have started to make nuclear families and abandon the elders. This is because of the influence of western culture.


  •  Writing

A. Write an essay on The Importance of Family. In your essay, you can use these guiding questions.

  • Why family is important to you.
  • Why is family is or is not important for society?   
  • How do you think families will change in the future. 

Ans. Importance of Family 

Man is a social creature. He wants to live in mutual cooperation with love and kindness. He needs enough security and freedom within himself. Which is not possible without combining others. One can not emphasize enough the importance of family. It plays a great role in our lives. It makes us better human beings. The one lucky enough to have a family often does not realize the value of a family.


However, those who do not have families know their worth. A family is our source of strength: It teaches us what relationships mean. They help us create meaningful relationships in the outside world. To love we inherit from our families, we learn to connect better with the world.


Moreover, families teach us better communication when we spend time with our families and love each other and converse openly, creating a better future for us. When we stay connected with our families, we learn to connect better with the outer world and society.   


Similarly, the family teaches us patience. Sometimes we have to be patient with our family members. yet we remain so out of love and respect. Thus, it teaches us patience to deal better with the world. Family gives us security, care, protection, shelter and love. Family boosts our confidence and makes us feel love. Family members are the pillar of our strength who never fall instead keep us strong so we become better people. 


B. Some people think it is better to live in a nuclear family. Other people think that living in an extended family is more advantageous. What do you think? Write an essay discussing the advantages and disadvantages of both.

Ans. Advantages of the nuclear family

  • Male members of the family are more responsible
  • Small families have fewer financial needs.
  •  Strength & stability   
  • Financial stability equals more opportunity
  • Consistency means behaviour success
  • Encourage education, and get health benefits.
  • Connection to the family during the process again.
  • Less boring and easy to have needs.


  • Extend family exclusion   
  • The realities of cultural and religious traits burnout.
  • Conflict resolution skills are lost.
  • Small support system, lack of security and ownness.   
  • Compounding stereotypes.
  • Self-centred worldview
  • Possibilities of divorce & split of the spouse.


Advantages and Disadvantages of extended family 


  • It generates unity in society.
  • Close family bonding can enjoy each other’s company.
  • Support from family members, sharing responsibility.
  • More possibilities for assistance child care
  • Capital accumulation
  • Socialization is accomplished by more people
  • Division of labour
  • Possibilities of transforming inheritance.
  • Understanding socioeconomic status and cultural rituals and performing ceremonies.

Disadvantages of extended families

  • Struggles over who inherits what?   
  • Interference in marriage and other relationship
  • There is too much burden on a few individual
  • Misplace leadership roles
  • Lazy attitude towards life
  • Lack of privacy and may be disagreement about how to bring up a child
  • Additional authority figures
  • Family law intervenes in private lives with regard to children
  • Progress based on family best interest etc.

  • Grammar

 Modal verbs

A. Study the given sentences carefully.

a. Please read this letter for me. I can’t see without my glasses.

b. After working for a couple of years in China, I can speak Chinese now

c. When he was 40, he could earn a six-digit salary.

d. After six hours climbing, we were able to reach the summit.

e. Yesterday, I lost my keys. I looked for them everywhere but I couldn’t find .


B. Choose the best answer to complete the sentences.

a. ‘How much was your parking ticket?’ ‘Fifty rupees.’ ‘Oh well, it been worse.’

    i. could have ii. must have iii. should have

b. It …….. got lost in the post. These things happen sometimes.

i. can’t have ii. might have iii. must have

c. Sorry, I’m late. I got delayed at work.’ ‘You …    called. I was really worried about you.’

i.must have ii. could have iii. would have

d. ‘I don’t think he meant to be rude.’ ‘He ……… said sorry.’ 1.    must have ii. might have iii. would have

e. ‘Whose signature is this?’ ‘I don’t know. It ……….. be Manoj’s. That looks a bit like an M.

i . must ii. could iii. should.

f. I had it when I left the office so I ………. lost it on the way home. 

i. mustn’t have ii. must have iii. should have

g. You … …. think it’s funny, but I think it’s pathetic.

    i.    might ii. should iii. could


C. Complete the following sentences with appropriate endings. Use correct modal verbs.

Example: She could be a doctor; however,……

She could be a doctor; however, she preferred to be an advocate.

  1. At the end of the course, she could have learnt a lot.
  2. If you want to earn a lot of money, work hard.
  3. You were not in your house yesterday. You might have urgent work at the office.   
  4. I’m quite busy tomorrow. I wouldn’t attend the meeting.
  5. When you were a small kid you wouldn’t go to the market.
  6. My car is broken. I must have repaired it.
  7. I’ve got a fast speed internet at home. I would complete my task on time.
  8. Even though she didn’t study well, she would obtain good marks.
  9. There are plenty of newspapers in the library. You can borrow many books if you want.
  10. What do you think you were doing, playing on the road? You shouldn’t play on the road.   
  11. I have no time. I must go now.
  12. You don’t look well. You should have a bed rest.

Please leave your comment

If this article has helped you, please leave a comment.

Previous Article Next Article