Humility Summary and Exercise | Class 12 English notes Humility Summary and Exercise | Class 12 English notes

Humility Summary and Exercise | Class 12 English notes

Humility-class-12-english-notes

Unit 4: Humility

 

Before reading

 

  Answer the following questions.

 a. What do you know about the Chinese civilization?

Ans. Chinese civilization is one of the ancient civilizations of the world. It was very rich in art, culture, innovation, etc.

 

b. Are there any similarities between South Indian and Chinese civilizations? Discuss.

Ans. Yes, there are some similarities between south Indian and Chinese civilizations. Both are ancient, rich, and deep histories and heritages.

 

  •  Understanding the text  

 Answer the following questions.

a. Describe the claim of the Chinese nationalists about human history.

Ans. Chinese nationalists claim that human history began with the yellow emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties.

 

b. What do pious Muslims believe about human history?

Ans. Pions Muslims believe all the history after the revelation of the Quran to revolve around the Muslim ummah.

 

c. What did the Aztecs firmly believe about the universe?

Ans. Aztecs firmly believed that without their sacrifices each year, the sun would not rise, and the entire universe would disintegrate.

 

d. What, according to the essay, are the universal human abilities? 

Ans. The universal human abilities are mortality, art, spirituality, and creativity, embedded in our DNA.

 

e. How are the basic yoga postures derived from the shape of the Hebrew alphabet letters?

Ans. Trikonasana, Tuladandasana, etc., are the basic yoga postures derived from the shape of the letter of the Hebrew alphabet.

 

 

  • Reference to the context 

 

a. How do Hindu nationalists refute the Chinese claim that human history really began with the Yellow Emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties? Whom Do you agree with, and why?

Ans. In this chapter, Harari tells us that humility is a quality that most cultures lack. Each group of religions believes itself to be the center of the universe and the inventor of the most important philosophies and contributions. Moreover, by this thought, they want to increase their followers. Chinese and Hindu nationalists have their own beliefs. Chinese nationalists retort that history really began with the yellow emperor and the Xia and Shang dynasties. However, the Hindu nativists refute the Chinese claim. They even argue that airplanes, nuclear bombs, etc., were invented by ancient sages in the Indian subcontinent long before. For example, Maharishi Bhardwaj invented rockets and airplanes, Vishwamitra invented and used missiles, Acharya Kanad was the father of atomic theory, and the Mahabharata accurately describes nuclear weapons.

 

b. The author has dealt with a controversial debate on human history. Why do you think history has been a major contested issue in the present world?

Ans. In the essay, Harari has dealt with a controversial debate on human history. According to him, each group a religion believes itself to be the center of the universe and the inventor of the most important philosophies and contributions. Moreover, they want to increase their followers number by this thought. However, no group is truly unique. In the present world, history has been a major contested issue. He took the example of Hindu, Muslim, Islam, Judaism, and Chinese dynasties. In the present world, such issues are being accelerated in some parts of the world. Molecular nanotechnology, Nuclear holocaust, science, and technology are running side by side. All the groups/countries are willing to be influential in the world. Nevertheless, humility is the main thing that the people must have, but it is lacking, which is a significant issue. So, we have to puncture the hot air balloon inflated by our tribes.

 

Reference beyond the text

a. Write a short essay on The Conflicting History of Human Civilization.

Ans. Civilization refers to the advancement in human culture in terms of technology. Science, politics, and division of labor. The world is currently experiencing technological changes which have made life better for everyone. The ancient civilization was determined by factors like technology, trade, etc.

 

Historians have identified the essential characteristics of civilization. Six essential characteristics are cities, religion, social structures, writing, government, and art. Civilization first appeared in Mesopotamia (Iraq) and later in Egypt. Civilization ultimately developed on every continent except Antarctica. While our ancestors have been around for about 6 million years, the modern form of human-only evolved about 2,00,000 years ago. Civilization has led to the integration

 

of the world, and many discoveries are still being made even now. Modern society has been transformed through civilization. Modern technology has really facilitated civilization, and we, therefore, envisage a more civilized world in the future.

 

b. The author claims, “Since it is more polite to criticize one’s own people than to criticize foreigners.” Do you agree with his claim? Give your reasons.

Ans. Criticism is a necessary part of life. We will endure criticism for most of our young life, from corrections to our penmanship to comments about our performance in a professional setting. Inevitably, many of these pieces of criticism will be purely constructive, helping us figure out what we are doing wrong and putting us on the fastest path to improvement. However, some of these pieces will cut as profoundly, serving as an insult as heavily as they serve as criticism.

 

When it is our turn to give criticism, we want to be sure our comments fit the description of the form. Remaining polite and constructive will help those under. We feel better about thin work and ourselves and will make a better impression on those above us.

 

In the essay; the author claims, “Since it is more polite to criticism one’s own people than to criticize foreigners.” yes, I agree with this claim that when we criticize our own’s people politely, it will help to improve his doing and such criticism will be purely constructive. We can find out how we think about the criticism and choose our words to make this positive influence. The positive changes will later help us too. However, for other people/foreigners, we will be unable to know her thinking about criticism even if it is polite. Sometimes, our polite criticism also acts as an insult to him/her and can create a big issue.

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