Human Rights and the Age of Inequality Summary and Exercise | Class 12 English Notes | NEB


Human Rights and the Age of Inequality Summary and Exercise: Questions & Answers Class 12 English

Understanding the text 

Answer the following questions.

a. What is the first human rights declaration adopted by the United Nations?

Ans: The United Nations' first human rights declaration is the mobilization for economic and social rights.


b. When is Human Rights Day observed?

Ans: Every year on December 10th, Human Rights Day is honored.


c. What is the goal of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Ans: The purpose of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is to present a list of the most basic entitlements or key values that humans deserve simply for being human. These include fairness, dignity, equality, and respect. Furthermore, its goal is to establish the "basis of freedom, justice, and peace throughout the globe."


d. What are two big stages that involve writing the history of human rights in relation to that of political economy?

Ans: The two major stages in writing the history of human rights in connection to the history of political economy are:

  • After WWII, the heroic period of national welfare.
  • In 1948, the bitter adversaries of the emerging cold war era.


e. What are the facts that have been missed in Roosevelt’s call for a “second Bill of Rights”?

Ans: The following facts have been overlooked in Roosevelt's proposal for a "second Bill of Rights":

  • For starters, it marked a typically provincial America's late and tentative admission into an already predetermined North Atlantic consensus.
  • Second, his most important pledge was the elimination of "special privileges for the few" - a ceiling on inequality - rather than a floor of protection for the majority.
  • Finally, Roosevelt thought it would span the globe, but it was structured on a national rather than international scale.

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f. Write the truth expressed in Herodotus’s Histories.

Ans: According to Herodotus' History, global socioeconomic justice, like local socioeconomic justice, would necessitate redistribution under pressure from the rich to the poor through fresh kinds of legal activity.


g. Why is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights important to you?

Ans: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is significant to me because it works for all human beings' rights, justice, equality, and equity by eliminating partiality, injustice, inequality, discrimination, and so on from society.

Reference to the Context 

a. Does the essay give ways on how to stigmatize inequality? Explain.

Ans: The essay "Human Rights and the Age of Inequality" does not provide particular methods for stigmatizing inequality, but it does discuss the stigmatization of inequality. Most importantly, history reveals that they are the wrong kind of agent; they are not afraid enough to cause redistribution. If inequality continues to develop at this rate, opponents will emerge at some point. As a result, it is preferable to maintain social equality and fairness. Social equality and liberty can be justified by developing a new type of human rights movement for the sake of the common people. Proper supervision and monitoring, stakeholder support, adopting tough legislation, removing partiality, and maintaining fairness and equality, among other things, are required for the humanitarian benefit of all human beings. Inequality is viewed as a social disgrace since it causes squabbles and conflicts among people, hence a proper balance is essential.


b. Is another human rights movement necessary? Why?

Ans: Yes, another human rights movement is required, according to the essayist, because Human Rights is operating under political suppression in human affairs. He hopes to see another human rights revolution in the near future for the following reasons:

  • People in positions of power have been caught breaking the law.
  • Human affairs have contained inequality.
  • Favoritism and nepotism are still prevalent.
  • The rule of law will be given primary attention.
  • Political and social predominance persists throughout the world.
  • Laws and rights are just documented; they are not implemented.
  • There is a need for rights and fairness for all people, whether they are rich or poor, who belong to the upper or lower classes.

Reference beyond the text 

a. What are the challenges in maintaining human rights in Nepal?

Ans: Human rights are the fundamental freedoms and rights that every person is entitled to. Treaties and other international agreements often contain clauses that give human rights legal force.

In Nepal, the Human Rights Commission Act of 1997 (2053 BS) led to the establishment of human rights as a legislative organization in the year 2000. The NHRC became a constitutional body under Nepal's interim constitution of 2007 (2063 BS).

Following are the key obstacles to upholding human rights in Nepal:

  • Penury/ Poverty (especially in rural regions)
  • Inequality in education
  • Gender disparity
  • Health problems
  • Children's rights abuses
  • Abuse of authority
  • Nepotism, bribery, corruption, illiteracy, and general populace ignorance
  • Giving personal gains or favors precedence
  • Inadequate systems for organizing policies Inadequate plans for carrying out legal requirements, etc.


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