Human Culture: NEB Class 12 Notes Human Culture: NEB Class 12 Notes
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Hamro Library

Human Culture: NEB Class 12 Notes


Human Culture Exercise: Question Answers and Grammar

Here is the complete exercise for "Land of Plenty" from the Language Development section of Class 12 English Notes NEB:

Working with words Section

A. Complete the given sentences with the suitable words from the box.

a. The annual report has caused acute embarrassment to the government.
b. Ellen has worn high-heels. She is teetering.
c. Look! The poor horse is dragging a heavy load.
d. As they approached the outskirts of the city, Ella’s mood visibly lightened.
e. The parcel was wrapped in plain brown paper. It still looks attractive.
f. Fruits and vegetables grow in abundance in the Terai region.
g. They can abstract precious medicines from ordinary substances.

Also, Browse the following:

C. Add suitable suffix to the root words given and write the parts of speech of each newly formed word.

Root WordSuffixNew Words
NeighbourhoodNeighbourhood (n.)
ComfortableComfortable (adj.)
ShopingShopping (n.)
HuskerHusker (n.)
SqueamishlySqueamishly (adv.)
ChangeingChanging (adj.)
ShineingShining (adv.)
ColloquiallyColloquially (adv.)
CollectionCollection (n.)
EmbarrassmentEmbarrassment (n.)
PersuadeivePersuasive (adj.)
DifferenceDifference (n.)
TropicalTropical (adj.)
DriveingDriving (adj.)
ResideenceResidence (n.)
BrotherhoodBrotherhood (n.)
FreshnessFreshness (n.)

D. Look for the following words related to waste management in an English dictionary. Make sentences of your own using them.

Sewage often pollutes the ocean.

A lot of sludge was scooped out of the base of the river.

Organic waste
Oxygen is required for the efficient decomposition of organic wastes.

Inorganic waste
The inorganic waste is being processed in a new government-owned plant.

The ignition of methane gas killed eight men.

Waste reduction
The government should focus on waste reduction for a pollution-free environment.

It was caught in a monofilament gill in about 60 feet of water.

Market waste
Proper recycling and management of market waste should be everyone’s first priority.

The government is proposing to incinerate cattle carcasses at 22 sites.

Hazardous waste
Regular CFLs are categorized as household hazardous waste.


Comprehension Section

Answer the following questions.

a. How does the author describe the Japanese waste management system?

According to the author's description of the Japanese waste management system, three nights a week, residents of his neighborhood deposit their household trash in designated areas on street corners, wrapped in neat bundles like gifts, and it disappears at dawn.

b. What are the two reasons behind the existence of sodaigomi in Japanese culture?

Sodaigomi is a part of Japanese culture because of two things: the small size of the average Japanese house and the Japanese desire for cleanliness and freshness.

c. What, according to the author, do the Japanese feel at the thought of buying second-hand items?

According to the author, the thought of buying used items makes the Japanese feel embarrassed.

d. How is Malaysian culture different from Japanese culture concerning the used items?

No one throws anything away in Malaysian culture, whereas heaps of clean, new-looking merchandise are thrown on the street in Japanese culture. Several customers bid enthusiastically for second-hand small to small items in Malaysia, whereas shoppers in Japan appear to be embarrassed by the prospect of purchasing second-hand items.

e. Why did the author feel awkward at the sodaigomi pile?

The author felt awkward in front of the sodaigomi pile because he had never believed that in Japanese culture, everything that is perfectly clean, whole, and serviceable is thrown out.

f. How many articles did the author bring to his house one after another?

The author included as many provisions as he could. He began by grabbing a standard low Japanese tea table. He then delivered a new bicycle bell for one of his sons, a small but attractive wooden cupboard, a complete set of wrenches and screwdrivers in a metal toolbox, a Naugahyde-covered barstool, and a lacquer serving tray.

g. Why do most people try to find things in trash pile ‘in the dead of night’?

Most people try to find things in trash piles "in the dead of night" because no one will notice and they will not bring shame upon their kind.

h. How did the author’s family assimilate Japanese culture in using consumer goods?

The author's family adopted Japanese consumer culture by operating at night to collect essential materials or goods thrown out in the sodaigomi pile.


Critical thinking Section

a. If you happen to be in Japan someday, will you collect articles from sodaigomi? Why or why not?

Yes, if I were ever in Japan, I would have collected articles from sodaigomi. I live in a country where people only buy new things when their old ones become damaged or unable to function properly. So, living in Japanese culture and adhering to the sodaigomi tradition is not for me. It's excruciating to go from a world where we didn't have any household goods, couldn't bring ourselves to buy the overpriced new ones in the store, and then see heaps of clean, new-looking merchandise just sitting on the street. I would save a lot of money and have a better life if I bought items from sodaigomi. So, instead of buying a new one, I will definitely collect articles from sodaigomi.

b. There are some second-hand shops in Nepal, too. But, people are not much interested in them. What practice would be suitable for managing second-hand items in Nepal?

Because of the cost-effectiveness, as well as the ethical and environmental benefits, some consumers enjoy buying and selling used items. However, many Nepalese people are uninterested in them. So, in order to encourage secondhand shopping in Nepal, the following factors should be considered.

1. Secondhand stores should collaborate with well-selling brands and advise consignors on which products and brands are best to consign with.

2. A reasonable price should be maintained by beginning with the original cost of the newly manufactured item and reducing it in accordance with wear and tear and the extent of usage.

3. Offering additional assistance, such as consignment consultations with pricing, photography, and shipping advice can encourage more people to buy and sell on these sites.

4. Secondhand stores have large social media followings and should strive to reach as many people as possible.


Writing Section

A. Write a paragraph elaborating on the idea of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) in garbage management.

3Rs – Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle

The concept of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle) has become increasingly important in modern waste management. The goal of this concept is to reduce the amount of waste produced while also reducing the negative impact of waste on the environment. The first step is to reduce waste generation by limiting the use of disposable products and packaging. The second step is to repurpose items that are still in good condition rather than discarding them. This can be accomplished by donating or selling items, as well as repairing or repurposing them. Finally, the third step is to recycle non-recyclable materials such as plastic, paper, and metal. Recycling entails converting waste into new products while reducing the demand for raw materials. We can significantly reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills, conserve natural resources, and contribute to a cleaner and healthier environment by following the 3Rs.

B. Garbage management is a big problem in most of the cities in Nepal. Write a letter to the editor to be published in the daily newspaper suggesting the ways of ‘Solving Garbage Problems.’

12/24 Amritnagar Tole,
Kalanki, Kathmandu
26th Jan 2021

To the Editor,
The Kathmandu Post

Subject: Regarding the news coverage about ‘Solving Garbage Problems’.

Dear Editor,
I would appreciate it if you could give us some space in your widely circulated and popular newspaper. I am writing to draw the attention of the general public as well as the relevant government authorities to the problem of garbage management in most of Nepal's cities. I'm writing to express my dissatisfaction with our city's garbage management.

Garbage management is a well-known issue in most Nepalese cities, and our city is no exception. The growing amount of waste produced every day is posing a serious threat to public health and the environment. As a result, I'd like to propose some solutions to our city's garbage problem. To begin, we must educate the public about the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). This will help to reduce the amount of waste produced while also easing the burden on our waste management system. Second, a proper system for waste segregation at the source should be in place.

This will aid in the separation and disposal of waste into various categories such as organic waste, plastic waste, metal waste, and so on. Third, an efficient waste management system should be in place. The government should work to establish and maintain more waste treatment facilities, such as composting plants and recycling centers. Finally, raising public awareness about the importance of proper waste management is critical. Campaigns, workshops, and seminars can all be used to accomplish this.

The public must be educated on the consequences of improper waste disposal as well as the benefits of proper waste management practices. Finally, I believe that by taking the steps outlined above, we can effectively address our city's garbage problem. I urge the authorities to take the necessary steps to put these measures into effect and create a cleaner, healthier environment for all. I hope that the relevant authorities will take immediate action.

I hope to see an article on this topic in your upcoming publication.

Respectfully yours,
GP Sharma


Grammar Section

B. Use the words from the brackets to complete the sentences.

a. This house is very small. I want to buy a much bigger one. (much / big)

b. I liked the magic show. It was far more exciting than I’d expected. (far / exciting)

c. It was very cold yesterday. It’s a bit warmer today. (a bit / warm)

d. The warmer the weather the better I feel. (good)

e. An average American earns considerably higher than an average Nepali. (considerably / high)

f. Health care in Nepal is not as expensive as it is in the US. (expensive)

g. I think the problem is far more complicated than it seems. (far / complicated)

h. You are driving very fast. Would you please drive a bit slowly? (a bit/ slowly)

i. Your handwriting is not legible. Can you write a bit neat? (a bit/ neat)

C. Rewrite the following sentences with the sentence beginnings given below.

a. Kabir is less intelligent than he pretends. He is not as intelligent as he pretends.

b. I am busy today but I was busier yesterday. I’m not as busier as I was yesterday.

c. Hari has lived in Kathmandu for 10 years but Bikram for 20 years. Bikram has lived in Kathmandu 10 years more than Hari.

d. I used to study 12 hours a day but nowadays I study only 5 hours a day. I don’t study as much as I used to do.

e. It’s a very good room in our hotel. In fact, it’s the best compared to other.

f. He earns 30 thousand rupees a month but spends 40 thousand. He spends more than he earns.

g. There is no other mountain higher than Mt. Everest in the world. Mt. Everest is the highest mountain in the world.

h. The place was nearer than I thought. It was not as far as I thought.

i. Bharat can play better than Mohan. Mohan can’t play as good as Bharat.

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