Migration and Diaspora: NEB Class 12 English Notes


Migration and Diaspora Exercise: Question Answers and Grammar

Working with words Section

A. Find the words from the text that have the following meanings. The first letter of the word has been given.

a. sojourner a person who resides temporarily in a place
b. transnational existing in or involving different countries
c. remittance a sum of money sent in payment or as a gift
d. assimilation is the process of allowing somebody to become a part of a country or community
e. misnomer a name or a word that is not appropriate or accurate
f. confer to give somebody an award or a particular honour or right
g. dormant not active or growing now but able to become active
h. persecution is the act of treating somebody in a cruel and unfair way

Also, Browse the following:

B. Pronounce the following words. What sounds do the underlined letter(s) represent?

ribbon : /ˈɹɪbən/
filled : /fɪld/
phone : /fəʊ̯n/
often : /ˈɒf(t)ən/
ghost : /ɡəʊst/
who : /huː/
back : /bæk/
edge : /ɛdʒ/
jellyfish : /ˈdʒɛliˌfɪʃ/
Christmas : /ˈkɹɪsməs/
acclaim : /ə.ˈkleɪm/
spell : /spɛl/
summer : /ˈsʌmə(ɹ)/
sink : /skɪn/
tongue : /tɒŋɡ/
happy : /ˈhæpiː/
wrong : /ɹɒŋ/
sun : /sʌn/
batter : /ˈbætə(ɹ)/
five : /faɪv/
why : /waɪ/
yellow : /ˈjɛl.əʊ/
treasure : /ˈtɹɛʒɚ/
cheese : /t͡ʃiːz/
shark : /ʃɑɹk/
thief : /θiːf/
feather : /ˈfɛð.ə(ɹ)/

C. Write the number of syllables and mark the stressed syllable of the following words.

WordsStessed SyllablesSyllables
certificate/səˈtɪfɪkeɪt/4 syllables
holiday/ˈhɒlɪdeɪ/3 syllables
zoology/zuːˈɒlədʒi,zəʊˈɒlədʒi/4 syllables
photographic/ˌfəʊtəˈɡrafɪk/4 syllables
geography/dʒɪˈɒɡrəfi,ˈdʒɒɡrəfi/4 syllables
curiosity/kjʊərɪˈɒsɪti/5 syllables
mechanically/mɪˈkanɪkli/5 syllables
characteristics/karəktəˈrɪstɪk/5 syllables
examination/ɪɡˌzamɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n,ɛɡˌzamɪˈneɪʃ(ə)n/5 syllables
negotiation/nɪɡəʊʃɪˈeɪʃ(ə)n/5 syllables
paraphrase/ˈparəfreɪz/3 syllables
paradoxically/ˌparəˈdɒksɪkli/6 syllables
territoriality/ˌtɛrɪˈtɔːrɪəlɪti/7 syllables



A. Match the first halves of the sentences (a-g) with their second halves (i-vii).

a. The term assimilation has been usediii
b. It is essential to study the process of diasporizationv
c. The definition of dediasporizationvii
d. The dediasporization process for migrants who have not given up their native citizenshipvi
e. Some countries grant full citizenship to the returneesiv
f. It is surprising thati
g. The role of a state in dediasporizationii


i. in some countries the returnees are referred as diaspora.
ii. reveals its identity.
iii. as an analytical tool in the study of integration of the migrants.
iv. while some countries bar them from certain rights.
v. in order to understand the description of immigration.
vi. requires them only to return to their homeland.
vii. focuses only on the aspect of relocating migrants to their homelands.


B. Answer the following questions.

a. According to the author, what are the three aspects of migration?

According to the author, there are three aspects of migration: forward movement, migrants themselves, and backward movement.

b. Which aspect of migration is neglected by the researchers?

The researchers ignore the multidimensionality of the dedasporization phenomenon as an aspect of migration.

c. What is ‘dediasporization’?

Dediasporization is when a diasporic subject reclaims homeland citizenship by returning to the country that sent them, achieves generational assimilation in the host state, or re-enters the transnational circuit of the translation state.

d. Why is the role of the state important in dediasporization?

The state's role in dediasporization is important because it ensures that such a person is eligible to reacquire state citizenship, with all of its privileges and obligations.

e. How is Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean different from others?

The Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean is unique; people who have lived there for more than a century still think of them as foreigners.

f. Why is it difficult to regain citizenship after returning to the homeland?

After coming home, it's hard to regain citizenship because a person's integration into society depends on the state giving them legal legitimacy.

g. What do the Germans feel towards the returnees from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan?

Germans have strong feelings about people coming back from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, and they don't like them.

h. How are the returnees’ activities in Israel different from that of other countries?

Returnees' activities in Israel differ from those in other countries because they assert full citizenship, form their own political parties, grant freedom and advocate rights to other citizens.

i. What is the role of the individual in dediasporization?

The individual's role in dediasporization is assimilating with the people and culture, maintaining citizenship, and contributing to the nation-building process.


Writing Section

A. The following words and phrases are used in interpreting data of different types of charts and diagrams. Study the words/phrases and put them in the right column.

Upward TrendDownward TrendStable Trend
grow, go up to, boom, peak, level up, rise, climb, increasedecline, collapse, fall, drop, dip, go down, reduce, decrease, crash, plunge, plummetstay constant, remain stable, no change, remain steady, stay, maintain the same level


Grammar Section

A. Make sentences from the table below using used to / didn’t use to as shown in the example.

a. She used to travel a lot but now she rarely leaves her town.
b. She used to be lazy but now she works hard.
c. She didn’t use to like junk food but she eats momo and noodles these days.
d. She used to have a pet but it died last year.
e. She used to be a school teacher but now she is a professor.
f. She used to have many friends but now she has limited friends.
g. She did not use to read many books but she reads a lot of books.
h. She didn’t use to take coffee but now she drinks coffee.
i. She used to go to parties a lot but now she doesn’t attend parties.

B. Complete the following sentences with used to or would.

a. My sister used to have short hair when she was young.
b. We used to have lunch in the same school café when I was in middle school.
c. My father used to play badminton before he had a backbone problem.
d. When I was very young, I didn’t use to (not) like milk.
e. She would call me after class for a chat.
f. My mother didn’t use to (not) wear glasses when she was at university.
g. When I was a child, we used to live in a village.
h. On Sundays, My mother would wake up and go to the temple.
i. How many friends would have in class ten?
j. My father would always read me bedtime stories before bed.


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