Power and Politics: NEB Class 12 English Notes


Power and Politics Exercise: Question Answers and Grammar

Working with words Section

A. Find the words from the text for these meanings. The first letters have been given to you.

a. reluctance unwillingness or disinclination to do something
b. repressive preventing the expression or awareness of thoughts or desires
c. mutilation the infliction of serious damage on something
d. ghettoized restricted to an isolated or segregated place, group, or situation
e. history feminist history viewed from a female or specifically feminist perspective
f. genital relating to the human or animal reproductive organs
g. hysterectomies are surgical operations to remove all or part of the uterus
h. paranoid obsessively anxious, suspicious, or mistrustful
i. eventuation thrusting forward of abdominal organs through the abdominal wall

Also, Browse the following:

B. Complete the chart.


C. Consult a dictionary and define these terms.

  • Racism: The belief that certain races are inherently superior or inferior to others, and the discrimination and prejudice based on this belief.
  • Lesbian: A woman who is primarily attracted romantically, sexually, or emotionally to other women.
  • Radical: Relating to or advocating fundamental or revolutionary changes in social or political structures or beliefs.
  • Feminist: Advocating for the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes, and the belief that women should have the same rights, opportunities, and freedoms as men.
  • Patriarchy: A social system in which men hold primary power and authority, particularly in the realms of government, law, and economics, and which reinforces male dominance over women in both public and private spheres.

D. Underline the consonant clusters in the following sentences.

a. Fluffy went flip-flop all over the floor.
b. The whites sing a song about the striking stars.
c. Here are some flowers and a flask of tea of your favourite flavour.
d. Smita fell ill with flu.
e. My friend is frightened of frogs.
f. Thumbelina stumbled out of the green bush.
g. She heard a rumble and a cry.
h. ‘Climb up’, said Tom.
i. Freedom needs to be strived for.
j. Children were munching crunchy French fries.


Comprehension Section

Answer the following questions.

a. Why does Audre Lorde think that Mary got a sort of victory in the University of Boston?

Audre Lorde considered Mary to have won a victory at the University of Boston because she was relieved to see so many women attending the speak out, and the display of united power will provide more space for them to grow and be within.

b. Why is Lorde thankful to Mary?

Lorde is grateful to Mary for providing her with a book titled Gyn/Ecology, which is full of important, useful, generative, and provocative information. The book is encouraging and beneficial to her.

c. What impression has the writer had about the way white women looked upon black women?

The writer had a negative impression of how white women perceived black women. According to her, the white women were unable to hear the black women's words or maintain a conversation with them. For her, the act of white women is long and discouraging.

d. Why did Mary not cast black women as goddesses in her book according to Lorde?

Mary did not cast black women as goddesses in her book, according to Lorde, because she made a conscious decision to limit her scope and deal only with the ecology of Western European women.

e. Why did Lorde think that she misused her words?

Lorde believed she abused her words because she only used them to testify against Lorde as a woman of color.

f. For Lorde, how were women, especially from the black community, undervalued?

According to Lorde, women, particularly those from the black community, were undervalued because they were ghettoized by a white woman operating solely within a patriarchal Western European frame of reference.

g. How does Mary take white women as? Does Lorde agree with Mary’s view?

Mary believes that white women are superior to non-white women. Her assumption is that white women's herstory and myth are the legitimate and sole herstory and myth of all women to call on for power and background, and that nonwhite women and their herstories are notable only as decorations or examples of female victimization.


No, Lorde does not share Mary's viewpoint. Lorde objects to Mary's depiction of blacks as decorative and useful objects while ignoring their pain and oppression, which she believes demonstrates white feminism's superiority over black feminism.

h. What is Afrekete? How does it connect to this lesson?

Afrekete is the collective voice of the black lesbian writing tradition. It relates to this lesson because the author wishes to connect all black women in the field of black writing.


Critical thinking Section

a. "The oppression of women knows no ethnic or racial boundaries." Do you agree or not? Justify with your reasons.

"Women's oppression knows no ethnic or racial boundaries." Yes, I agree with this assertion. Women have fought for many years to be treated equally and to be paid the same as men. Men are treated, hired, and paid better than women, indicating discrimination against them. Women continue to fight discrimination around the world. The oppression of women in achieving equality breeds intolerance. Uncertainty can result from women not having the rights they deserve.

Women did not have equal rights in history, which explains why some men continue to face sexist discrimination. Despite significant progress toward gender equality, women continue to face violence, discrimination, and institutional barriers to equal participation in society. Because of gender inequality, women are treated differently than men, demonstrating how women do not have the same social status as men. It should be equal pay for equal work, but women are still seen as less than men. Many countries deny women the right to an education on the grounds that women should not be educated. Many poor women cannot afford to pay for education, so they are unable to obtain it. Many times, it is not an option because governments prevent women from obtaining their educational goals. As a result of all of this, women have suffered greatly. Their oppression knows no ethnic or racial lines, and they have been victims for centuries.

b. Why is it important to question our beliefs and values? How are they set up in a person’s mind?

It is essential to challenge our beliefs and values because it develops character, honesty, compassion, acceptance, and strength. People typically avoid challenging their own beliefs because they believe it will diminish their beliefs. If we think this way, it's because we already have doubts about the veracity of our claims, and we're lying to ourselves. Questioning beliefs objectively and observing as a third party/person allows us to determine not only whether our beliefs are true, but also what the logical consequences of our ideas in the world are (positive and negative). When we question another person's beliefs on a subject, we should assess our own. Acceptance grows when we realize we were wrong. When we discover we are incorrect and modify our beliefs while admitting our error, we gain strength. As a result, it is critical to question our beliefs and values.


Writing Section

B. Write an article for a national daily on "The Status of Women in Nepali Society."

The Status of Women in Nepali Society


Women have played a crucial role in Nepali society for centuries. They have contributed to every aspect of life, from the economy to the family, and have faced numerous challenges along the way. Despite progress, the status of women in Nepali society remains complex and multifaceted.


Nepal has made significant strides in promoting gender equality in recent years. The country has implemented policies and programs that aim to empower women and girls, improve access to education, and increase women's participation in the workforce. However, many of these efforts remain incomplete, and gender-based discrimination and violence still exist.


One of the most pressing challenges facing Nepali women is violence. Women in Nepal experience high rates of domestic violence, sexual harassment, and trafficking. Women from marginalized communities, including Dalits and Indigenous women, are particularly vulnerable to violence and discrimination. The government has enacted laws to protect women's rights, including the Domestic Violence (Offence and Punishment) Act, but implementation and enforcement of these laws remain a challenge.


Education is another key issue for women in Nepal. Despite progress, many girls still face barriers to accessing education, particularly in rural areas. Girls often drop out of school due to early marriage or because of the lack of facilities such as separate toilets and menstrual hygiene management. This not only limits their opportunities but also has broader implications for the country's economic and social development.


Women's economic participation is also a challenge in Nepal. Women have lower labour force participation rates than men, and many work in low-paid, informal jobs. Women's access to credit and other financial services is limited, which restricts their ability to start and run businesses. Additionally, cultural norms and gender-based discrimination can limit women's ability to take on leadership positions and participate in decision-making at all levels.


In recent years, the government has taken steps to address some of these challenges. The National Women's Commission was established in 2002 to promote gender equality and eliminate discrimination against women. The government has also implemented programs to increase women's access to education, healthcare, and employment. However, more needs to be done to ensure that these policies are effective and fully implemented.


In conclusion, the status of women in Nepali society is complex and multifaceted. While progress has been made in promoting gender equality and protecting women's rights, challenges remain. Violence, limited access to education and economic opportunities, and gender-based discrimination continue to affect Nepali women's lives. To create a truly equal society, it is essential that the government and all stakeholders work together to address these challenges and ensure that women's rights are fully realized.


Grammar Section

B. Choose the correct alternative.

a. an old foreign car/a foreign old car

an old foreign car

b. a beautiful white dress/ a white beautiful dress

a beautiful white dress

c. a nice tall young man/a tall nice young man

a nice tall young man

d. a big black wooden desk/ a black wooden big desk

a big black wooden desk

e. a delicious Italian pizza/ an Italian delicious pizza

a delicious Italian pizza

f. a huge brown bear/a brown huge bear

a huge brown bear

g. a purple cotton sleeping bag/ a cotton purple sleeping bag

a purple cotton sleeping bag

h. a beautiful old Indian village/an old beautiful Indian village

an old beautiful Indian village

i. a cute little kitten/ a little cute kitten

a cute little kitten

j. an expensive antique /an antique expensive table

an antique expensive table

C. Put the adjectives in the following sentences in the correct order.

a. I bought (red/ a /comfortable/new) scooter.

I bought a comfortable new scooter.

b. She reached home and sat on (relaxing/old/her/wooden) chair.

She reached home and sat on her old relaxing wooden chair.

c. We ate (Chinese/delicious/some) food.

we ate some delicious Chinese food.

d. I need (golden/delicious/some/round) apples.

I need some delicious round golden apples.

e. We like to live in a (calm/unmediated/remote) place for some time.

We like to live in a calm unmediated remote place for some time.

f. She is wearing (silver/beautiful / a(n)/ old) ring.

She is wearing an old beautiful silver ring.

g. I am looking for (golden/stylish/a/Japanese) watch.

I am looking for a stylish Japanese golden watch.

h. She dropped (old/china/attractive/a(n)) cup and smashed it.

She dropped an old attractive China cup and smashed it.

i. He wants to marry (young/pretty/educated/a(n)/rustic) girl.

He wants to marry a pretty young educated rustic girl.

j. We stayed in a (luxurious/five star/new) hotel in Dubai.

We stayed in a new luxurious five-star hotel in Dubai.


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