War and Peace: NEB Class 12 English Notes


War and Peace Exercise: Question Answers and Grammar

Working with words Section

A. What do the underlined words in the following sentences mean? Tick the best answer.

a. clamour: a loud and confused noise
b. precariously: not securely
c. scrutiny: examination
d. absconded: hid somewhere secretly
e. anglicized: characteristics of English
f. platitudes: doubtful remarks

B. Many words have been borrowed in English from different languages.
Find the meaning of the following words which are borrowed from the Hindi language.

Veranda: a roofed platform along the outside of a house, level with the ground floor.

Khaki: A strong cloth of wool or cotton, often used for military or other uniforms.

Pashmina: a shawl made from fine-quality goat’s wool.

Pyjamas: loose-fitting jacket and trousers for sleeping in.

Pukka: genuine, excellent

Pundit: an expert in a particular subject or field who is frequently called upon to give their opinions to the public.

Avatar: the incarnation of a deity, particularly Vishnu.

Bangle: A rigid bracelet or anklet, especially one with no clasp.

Cheetah: a large slender spotted cat found in Africa and parts of Asia.

Guru: A Hindu or Sikh spiritual teacher.

Jungle: an area of land overgrown with dense forest and tangled vegetation, typically in the tropics.

Karma: good or bad luck, viewed as resulting from one’s actions.

Nirvana: Complete cessation of suffering; a blissful state attained through the realization of sunyata; enlightened experience.

Shampoo: an ideal or idyllic state or place.

Raita: an Indian side dish of yoghurt containing chopped cucumber or other vegetables, and spices.

Also, Browse the following:

C. Add the given suffixes to the following words to make new words. Notice whether ‘e’ is retained or dropped.

a. change + -able / -ing / -ed / – less
changeable, changing, changed, changeless

b. time + -ly / -ing / -ed / -less
timely, timing, timed, timeless

c. notice + -able / -ing / -ed
noticeable, noticing, noticed

d. praise + -worthy / -ing / -ed
praiseworthy, praising, praised

e. home + -less / -ing / -ly
homeless, homing, homely



Answer the following questions.

a. Why did Iqbal want to sleep in the afternoon?

Iqbal needed to sleep in the afternoon because he had spent the night in a crowded third-class compartment of the train, sitting on his bedroll.

b. How did people react with each other in the train?

People in the train reacted angrily to one another.

c. Why did the book Iqbal was reading bring commotion in the compartment?

The book Iqbal was reading caused commotion in the compartment because it was an English book, and people considered reading a book in English to be wise, praiseworthy, and prestigious.

d. Why did Iqbal have to give clarification with his personal details?

Iqbal was forced to provide clarification with his personal details about his background because the passengers on the train perceived him as an intellectual and wise person and thus insisted on him revealing his personal details.

e. Who was Meet Singh and what did he report to Iqbal?

Meet Singh was a priest at the Gurudwara. He told Iqbal that a villager had been killed, possibly by a village thief named Jugga.

f. How according to Meet Singh, was Jugga Sing different from his forefathers?

Meet Singh said that Jugga Singh was different from his ancestors because his ancestors had been thieves like him. They never pillaged or harmed their own village or its inhabitants. They used to protect the villagers from robbers. Jugga, on the other hand, robbed and even killed the people of his own village. He murdered one of his village's residents.

g. How does the author show contradiction in Meet Singh’s character?

Meet Singh's character is shown to be different by the fact that Meet Singh didn't care that Jugga killed a villager, and as a Gurudwara priest, he even wanted to swear on the holy Granth to defend Jugga from the murder charge.

h. Who was Hukum Chand and how did he succeed in his career?

Hukum Chand, also known as Nar Adami, was the Deputy Shahib. He advanced in his career by pleasing his Shaibs and receiving successive promotions.


Critical Thinking Section

a. Iqbal is addressed as Babu Sahib by general folk simply because he knew English. Are Nepali people who can speak English taken with respect? Discuss the importance of learning English in the Nepali context.

Yes, Nepalese who can communicate in English are respected. English is considered an elite-class language in Nepal. The majority of Nepalese believe that English is closely related to a person's class and social status. If you speak English fluently, you will be perceived as a very respectable person who has accomplished great things in life. It's almost like going to a store dressed up and getting all the attention from the salespeople. If you go to the same store wearing regular clothes, you will undoubtedly get less attention. People frequently make snap judgments about books based on their covers. If the cover is in English, Nepalese will buy the book rather than just judge it.

b. Do you agree with Iqbal’s comments on crime and punishment? In your view, what should the state, society and individuals do for peace and order in social lives?

Yes, I concur with Iqbal's remarks on crime and punishment. To cultivate and sustain a culture of peace, the state, society, and individuals must collaborate.

Individuals can help to bring about peace. We must recognize that we are not powerless as individuals and that the power of one can make a difference. As individuals, we must accept responsibility for putting an end to the scourge of war and establishing a culture of peace. We must understand that peace is more than just the absence of war. War depletes both human and financial resources and, as history has shown, is ineffective at resolving conflict. Individual and communal participation is required for peace. It necessitates justice, equality of rights, and equal opportunities.

Likewise, society plays a critical role in maintaining social peace and order. Every family in society must work together to make their society a pleasant and secure place to live. There should be the formation of a special team in society that is responsible for maintaining peace and order. This team is responsible for maintaining peace and order as well as determining criminal punishment.

The state also plays an important and responsible role in maintaining social peace and order. For the sake of social peace and order, the state must enact various rules and regulations. It should prioritize the security of social lives by reducing state-sanctioned crime and violence. The state must enforce strict anti-crime and anti-criminal laws. It should also have proper management of criminal punishment. These are the actions that the state, society, and individuals should take to promote social peace and order.


Writing Section

A. Meet Singh says Jugga a badmash. There can be such people in your locality, too. Write a paragraph describing him/her.

During my school days, I met a guy who was initially very nice to me. He later turned out to be the most dishonest person I'd ever met. I used to tell him all of my small and big secrets because we had quickly become good friends. As time passed, I realized he wasn't worth it. He used to share all of my secrets with his idiot friends and misinterpret me. I was completely broken and frustrated when I found out. But, being strong, I forgave him, who had not even apologized sincerely. I believe in forgetting, forgiving, and moving on, and that is how we should treat such people. But don't forget the lesson they teach you.

B. You may have travelled by bus or train. During your travel, you might have got different experiences. Write a letter to your friend describing about your unforgettable journey.

Date: 2079-11-13
Biratnagar-3, Morang

Dear Raman,


I hope this letter finds you in good health and spirits. I wanted to share with you my recent travel experience, which was truly unforgettable. I took a bus from my hometown to a nearby city, and it turned out to be one of the most exciting journeys of my life.


As soon as I boarded the bus, I noticed that there was a group of people who seemed to be travelling together. They were all dressed in colourful clothes, and they were singing and danced to the beats of some traditional music. At first, I was a bit hesitant to join in, but their energy was contagious, and I found myself clapping and swaying to the music in no time.


I was astounded by the beauty of the surroundings as we travelled through the countryside. The lush green fields, the towering trees, and the gentle hills all made for a breathtaking view. I felt like I was in a dreamland, and I couldn't believe how lucky I was to be experiencing all of this.


Just when I thought the journey couldn't get any better, we stopped at a small roadside restaurant for a break. The food was simple but delicious, and I savoured every bite. As I was about to leave, I noticed a young boy who was selling handmade bracelets. I bought one from him, and we struck up a conversation. He described his daily activities in the village, and his straightforward yet motivating outlook on life touched me.


The rest of the journey was just as eventful. I met a few more interesting people, listened to their stories, and learned so much about the local culture and traditions. By the time I reached my destination, I felt like I had been on an epic adventure.


In conclusion, my bus journey was truly unforgettable, and I will always cherish the memories. It taught me that life is full of surprises and that there is so much to discover and learn from the people and places around us. I hope that someday we can take a trip together and create our own unforgettable journey.


Your caring friend
Bipin Tamang


Grammar Section

C. Fill in the gaps with the suitable form of the verb in the brackets. Use past simple/past continuous/past perfect tenses. You may need to use negative too.

It was Sunday afternoon. I was watching (watch) a cookery programme on TV when I realised (realise) how hungry I was. But of course, I was hungry; I hadn’t eaten (eat) anything since lunch, and I had run (run) a race in the morning. “Biscuits!” I thought (think). My mother had given (give) me a jar of delicious homemade biscuits.

went (go) into the kitchen, opened (open) the fridge and poured (pour) some milk in a big glass. Then I looked (look) for the kitchen chair but it wasn’t (be) there: somebody had taken (take) it away. And there were no biscuits in the biscuit jar: somebody had eaten (eat) them all! I was sure I had put (put) the jar there the previous day and I had eaten (eat) only one cookie. It was very strange.

A few minutes later, I was drinking (drink) my glass of milk when I heard (hear) a loud noise coming from the dining room. I went (go) there quickly and I opened (open) the door. I couldn’t believe my eyes. An enormous monkey was eating (eat) the biscuits excitedly on the kitchen chair.

D. Rewrite the following sentences correcting the mistakes.

a. She played the flute and then she had sung in their choir.

She had played the flute and then she had sung in their choir.

b. I borrowed Rima’s car. Had you known about it?

I borrowed Rima’s car. Had you known about it?

c. After the lesson had finished, we run out of school.

After the lesson had finished, we ran out of school.

d. Had you be there? – Yes, the previous year.

Had you been there? -Yes, the previous year.

e. Did you liked my article published in the Himalayan Times yesterday?

Did you like my article published in the Himalayan Times yesterday?

f. I recognized him because I saw him before.

I recognized him because I had seen him before.

g. I hadn’t gone out because I hadn’t finished my homework.

I didn’t go out because I hadn’t finished my homework.

h. We had done nothing like this at that time.

We did nothing like this at that time.

i. It was quite difficult. I had had no idea what to do.

It had been quite difficult. I had no idea what to do.

j. As far as I’d known, she had always had some pets.

As far as I knew, she had always had some pets.

k. When I met Jim, he was already a soldier for three years.

When I met Jim, he had already been a soldier for three years.

l. He had gone to the coffee because somebody had told him.

He went to the coffee because somebody had told him.


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